This is the book used by African-Americans to identify hotels, motels and restaurants that would accept African-American patronage. The traveler’s guide lists cities and states, and includes the addresses for the facilities it recommends. This Green Book is dated from 1958; published by the Esso Men.
This large metal segregation sign says “For Sale Colored Only”. It has rust around the edges and peeling paint. Peeling in the lower right corner reveals that this segregation message appears to have painted-over an original message on a yellow background.
Sign measures 20″ x 28″.
This Real Estate and Personal Property tax document mentions “poll tax” for “Negro” J.A. Bebee, but it is signed W.T. Beebe in Beaufort County, North Carolina (in Washington “township”). Note that both the signed first and last names are different than the name printed on the front of the document, suggesting that the printed name on page one is a clerical error. This is historically very interesting because J.A. Beebe bought his freedom for $2300 and made a name for himself in Beaufort, North Carolina first as a pastor and then Bishop, establishing many CME churches around the country…
This 1914 deed is for the transfer of a house in Jefferson County, Kentucky. While no address is given, the lot is listed (including deed book and page number). This deed is through the Louisville Title Company. The deed states that “said property shall never be sold or leased to any person or persons of African descent.” Parties involved
This 1954 racist “Christian” desegregation brochure by John R. Rice is titled “Negro and White”. In it, the author states (regarding the lynching of Emmett Till) “That colored boy, who attempted to…seduce the…white woman, was spurred on by widespread feeling, a cocky attitude agitators have cultivated among colored people. Remember…a white woman dare not walk the streets alone at night or go anywhere alone at night because of the animosity and the standards of the large negro population….It makes for cases of murder and rape. It makes for some…cases in which offended white men, even good men, take the law in their own hands.“
This 1956 brochure contains the speech “Mixed Schools and Mixed Blood” by Herbert Ravenel Sass. It states “Herbert Ravel Sass, author, presents the fundamental case for the white South. A native of Charleston, South Carolina, an independent, and an Episocpalian, Mr. Sass is imbued with a tradition which he believes is based on unchanging truth. His argument goes to the very heart of the controversy: Would integrated schools lead to mixed blood?”
The brochure is published by The Educational Fund of the Citizens’ Councils of Greenwood, Mississippi.
This segregationist letter to Arkansas Governor Orville Faubus protests the integration of Central High School in Little Rock with explicit instructions to the Governor. The author states that this is his second letter. “…The U.S.A. Government Army is in control of Little Rick Central High School...Your Arkansas State Attorney General should draw up a rental agreement and lease Little Rock Central High School at One Million Dollars a Month Rent. If the U.S.A. Government defaults on paying this rental, the Arkansas State Attorney General should serve the U.S.A. Government with a thirty day eviction notice…This will teach the U.S.A. Government that Eisenhower Crimes against Arkansas State Government does not pay…Might does not make right, as President Eisenhower declares with his Paratroopers at Little Rock without declaring Martial Law…Go to it Governor Faubus and make these U.S.A. Government un-American Cowards eat their own chosen and executed U.S.A. Constitution Defying and Human Beastiality Mess they have no one to blame for but themselves….one wonders whether his mental capacities are sufficient to discharge the duties of the President of the United States….These Paratroopers with planted bayonets are guilty of criminal intent and actions against Little Rick Civilians who were not even armed. Any Newspaper Editor who praises these Paratroopers Conduct at Little Rock…is an enemy of Our U.S.A. Constitution same as the paratroopers with their bayonets…So will Integration be ruled out when the dumb buck Negro realizes his U.S.A. Supreme Court Integration Order has no force of honest U.S.A. Constitution Law and Order…
This flyer from the 1940’s advertises a “Jitterbug Contest and Swing Session” at the Civic Auditorium in San Francisco, California. The brochure lists the contestants with the “Colored Contestants” listed separately.
Besides Albany, GA, St. Augustine, FL is probably the greatest unsung civil rights battlefield. Conspicuous among the civil rights legends from this amazing chapter of history, is 72-year-old Mary Peabody (“Grandmother Peabody”) who flew from Boston to St. Augustine in the last week of March of 1964 to participate in sit-ins which were famously volatile and often violent. As the mother of Massachusett’s Governor (Endicott Peabody), MaryPeabody’s unusual participation was a turning point that generated publicity and put an international spotlight on demonstrations in St. Augustine. Martin Luther King, Jr., sent a public telegram to then-Governor of Massachusetts stating, “I have been so deeply inspired by your mother’s creative witness in Florida.”
The Heart of Atlanta motel, located at 255 Courtland Street NE, was owned by Atlanta attorney Moreton Rolleston Jr. Rolleston, a committed segregationist, refused to rent rooms at his hotel to black customers. Two hours after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into law, Rolleston filed a lawsuit for $11 million saying the law was unconstitutional. His lawsuit went all the way to the Supreme Court which would rule against Rolleston and provide a landmark ruling preventing discrimination in public accommodation.This collection consists of the key to Room #124, an oversized postcard, a regular sized postcard, and rare unused letterhead.
This is a 1950’s telephone directory from Georgia. It contains local Interstate Telephone Co. telephone listings from Lanett and Shawmut, Alabama along with Valley Telephone Co. listings for Fairfax, Langdale, and Riverview, Alabama. One ad for “ROBERTS’ FUNERAL HOME” specifies “COLORED”.
1954 “Black Monday” brochure is the printed version of a speech by Judge Tom P. Brady (of the Fourteenth Circuit Court District Brookhaven, Miss) denouncing the 1954 Landmark Brown vs. Board of Education desegregation decision. This brochure was published by the Mississippi Citizens’ Council. Note the quote, “We do know the negro has, in certain instances, elliptical blood cells, which cause disease. We do know that his skull is one-eighth inch thicker…”
Obsessed with maintaining segregation at all costs, Alabama removed this children’s book from library general circulation in 1958 because it depicted a rabbit with black fur marrying a rabbit with white fur.
This is a large realty investment document dated for April 1928, for the purchase of a house in Bannock County, Pocatello, Idaho. The document shows age discoloration and has been folded in quarters, still in nice shape. There is a notation at the bottom of the document that the buyer of the property agrees to never sell the lot or assign the contract to a Negro, Chinaman, or Japanese. There appear to be 5 signatures, including the Notary Public and the Ex-Officio Recorder.
This segregationist leaflet was distributed by “The Defenders” of Richmond, Virginia. It depicts U.S. soldiers “forcing” integration on school children. Approximately 4″x4″ on light card stock. Based on the date of Sep 26, 1957, this leaflet is assuredly based on President Eisenhower ordering the 101st Airborne to excort the “Little Rock Nine” to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas (an all-white school) after Governor Faubus order the National Guard to keep the black children out of the school. The leaflet credits the “Union Leader” newspaper of Manchester, NH as the original source for the cartoon.
This is a set of 6 railroad passes–5 for “John Williams and wife” (it says he was a “colored brakeman” for the Missouri Pacific) and 1 railroad pass for Isaac M. Feygans (it says “colored laborer”). The word “colored” is next to the names. They are dated 1919, 1923, 1926 (2), 1928, and 1930. 5 passes are for the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company and 1 is for the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad Company Line. Notice on the front of the Feygans pass it does not permit blacks to ride on trains 1 and 2 (white only service) or visit the lounge car on trains 11 and 12 (whites only service) or use ANY sleeping car accomodations (similar racial restrictions on all of the passes). 5 passes (for the Williams family) are encased in a glass frame; it would be easy to open this frame and remove them if necessary. The 6th pass is separate and not framed.
This hard-to-find segregationist pin was worn by Southern Whites to protest an end to segregation (“Never Integrate”). In the 1960’s, violent and racist Sheriff Jim Clark (of Selma, Alabama) was always seen wearing his gun, billy club (to electrically shock nonviolent demonstrators), and this pin. Note the manufacturer name, symbol, and unusual stamp (on the inside) of pin.
1. Glass sign says “Restrooms, White/Colored (with arrows pointing different directions). This was taken from a lighted sign base. J&B Sign Company. It is frosted glass with black lettering. 4″x12″. Note glue residue on back where it was previously affixed to the lighted sign base…
This document dated 1944, says “White Tax Payer’s Returns of Property Taxation.” It shows the market value of land, number of acres, and value of buildings. It also asks if the signor is subject to Poll Tax.
This 1966 brochure from the Louisiana Citizens’ Council is titled “Why We Are Expanding” and says “Questions and answers for the white people of South Louisiana who sincerely believe that States’ Rights and racial segregation must be preserved for the peace and good order of our county and for our children’s futures!” Also says “The Citizens’ Council movement is the only nationwide organization dedicated to preserving the integrity of the white race!” The brochure states (inside) that its aim is to “reverse the “Black Monday” decision of 1954 and repeal the mis-named “Civil Rights” Act of 1964.” It also invites the reader to attend a meeting on October 18, 1966 in New Orleans.
This complete April 30, 1956 edition of the Mobile Register has two BOLD examples of political segregation ads. The first ad, for Judge Roy Mayhall running for the Alabama Supreme Court, shows a rooster with the slogan “WHITE SUPREMACY FOR THE RIGHT“. The second ad, for C.W. (Charlie) McKay, Jr. running for Democratic National Committeeman, says “Alabama’s Fighting Champion for Segregation” and “Show Big Jim Folsom, the “Darling of the NAACP,” how you feel about Segregation and mongrelization.” Also, it says “McKay has sponsored Bills to keep Negro students, like Autherine Lucy, out of our white colleges.“…
In U.S. practice, a poll tax was used as a de facto or implicit pre-condition of the exercise of the ability to vote. This tax emerged in some states of the United States in the late 19th century as part of the Jim Crow laws. After the ability to vote was extended to all races by the enactment of the Fifteenth Amendment, many Southern states enacted poll tax laws as a means of restricting black voters; such laws often included a grandfather clause, which allowed any adult male whose father or grandfather had voted in a specific year prior to the abolition of slavery to vote without paying the tax. These laws, along with unfairly implemented literacy tests and extra-legal intimidation, achieved the desired effect of disfranchising African-American and Native American voters, as well as poor whites.
This is a tangible part of what so many fought, bled, and died for…to change THESE humiliating ordinances. This is an original HEAVY hardcover book “THE CODE OF THE CITY OF BIRMINGHAM”. Includes ordinances such as “Negroes Not To Game With Whites,” “Negroes Separated From Whites In Restaurants,” “Negroes Separated From Whites on Street Cars,” and “White Children Not To Be Carried To Negro Homes.” Code shows monetary penalties, imprisonment, and hard labor for violating these ordinances.
Governor Orval E. Faubus was the Governor who called out the National Guard to block nine African-American children from entering Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. Typed Letter Signed as Governor, on colored State of Arkansas Letterhead, January 10, 1958. Faubus makes reference to the challenge of integration in the letter by stating (after referencing “Pledge to the South”) “I am most grateful for your thoughtfulness and understanding of our situation.” Boldly signed in black ink.
This large and thick booklet from the Ball Clinic in Excelsior Springs, MO shows that the clinic does “not have facilities for treating colored people“. Based on the woodie (car) in one of the photos, the booklet appears to have been published in the 1950’s.
This metal token from the 1940’s says “Finder will receive deed to one seashore building lot high and dry title guaranteed $37.50. No other expense. Finder, return this coin within 96 hours to Cedar Lakes Inc. 729 7th Ave at 49th Street NYC. WHITE RACE ONLY“. This was issued in the 1940’s as land promotion.
Three separate newspapers covering the story of the Landmark 1954 Brown versus Board of Education Decision in the May 17, 1954 Atlanta Journal, the Chattanooga News-Free Press, and the May 18th, 1954 Chattanooga Daily Times. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
This 1960’s Monson Motor Lodge brochure advertises the hotel where Martin Luther King was arrested and also where the hotel manager famously poured acid in the pool where an interracial group was protesting the segregation
On March 31st, 1964, 72-year-old Mary Peabody was arrested for attempting to integrate the cocktail lounge at the Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge in St. Augustine, Florida. This brochure shows a date of 1962, two years before the arrest. Peabody wasn’t the only person to test segregation at the hotel or in St. Augustine, but as the white mother of Massachusett’s Governor Endicott Peabody, she was among the most famous to be arrested. Mary Peabody’s unusual participation was a turning point that generatedpublicity and put an international spotlight on demonstrations in St. Augustine. Martin Luther King, Jr., sent a public telegram to then-Governor of Massachusetts stating, “I have been so deeply inspired by your mother’s creative witness in Florida.” Interestingly, press photos of her separate encounters with law enforcement can be matched to chairs from two different rooms on this brochure which identify the cocktail lounge, and the Terrace Dining Room where she would be arrested (see attached photos below).
This is a postcard for Hot Springs National Park, Hot Springs, Arkansas. Note the verbiage at the top that says “COMPLETE, SANITARY, CONVENIENT, WHITE ATTENDANTS: THIS MEANS SERVICE“. Back says “Established 1832. The Nation’s Health Resort. Accommodations to suit any purse. Where the sick get well and the well stay well.”
This 1943 postcard says “Enlisted White Men’s Service Club” and “Fort McClellan—Anniston, Alabama.” It also says “Photograph by Signal Corps, U.S. Army”. On the back it says, “Courtesy, Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph company, Incorporated.
Orval Faubus was the famous segregationist Governor of Arkansas who made international news when he called out the National Guard to prevent 9 black children from entering a white high school (Central High School). Dramatically, the President of the United States then sent in the troops (101st Airborne) to escort the children to school. Metal and enamel political sign reads: “I Like FAUBUS”.
This is a segregationist booklet from 1957 titled “Segregation and the South” by Judge Tom Brady. A very interesting document from the infamous White Citizen’s Council of Greenwood, Mississippi. Interesting illustrative reference to the Little Rock Crisis of 1957 on the back showing a soldier with a bayonet “forcing” children to integrate, with the slogan “REMEMBER LITTLE ROCK.”
This Pullman Porter large fold-out from 1908 is simply beautiful; it should be mounted, matted, and framed. You can see from the wristwatch in the horizontal photo that it is quite a large blueprint. The “Colored Passengers” area and “White Passengers” area are clearly notated (click the photo until it is COMPLETELY legible). Note the red stamp that says “THE PULLMAN COMPANY, GEN’L MNGR’S OFFICE. MANUFACTURING DEPARTMENT. OCT-8 1902.”
Prior to the 1860s, the concept of sleeping cars on railroads had not been widely developed. George Pullman pioneered sleeping accommodations on trains, and by the late 1860s, he was hiring only African-Americans to serve as porters. After the Civil War ended in 1865 Pullman knew that there was a large pool of former slaves who would be looking for work; he also had a very clear racial conception
This brochure, titled “The Aims and Purposes of the STATES’ RIGHTS COUNCIL OF GEORGIA, INC.” states that it is “devoted to the maintenance of harmonious race relations in the State through preservation of the traditional establishment of segregation in both public and private places. It is the policy of the States’ Rights Council of Georgia, Inc., to stimulate cooperation on the part of both races to maintain the established pattern of life in the South and the integrity of both racial groups which have been living in harmony without outside dictation and interference for nearly 200 years. The Council rejects
Old brochure from the 1930’s promotes Tennessee’s State Parks and Recreational areas. This brochure was issued during the day of racial segregation. Two parks on the list: Shelby Forest Park and Booker T. Washington State Park are designated “Negro”. Both of these parks were listed as “under construction” and slated to open in 1940.
Brochure is in fine condition and measures approximately 16″ x 18″ when unfolded. Brochure includes lots of photos and a map of the Tennessee Parks system.
This is a one year Texas Standard Combined Fire and Windstorm Dwelling Policy, by American Indemnity Company, for Mrs. S.H. Harper on Kelsey Street in Austin, Texas. It was signed April 17th, 1932. The contract appears to cover a “Chicken House &Ga.” (garage?). The document asks whether both the owner and tenant are “White or Colored?”
“CONNOR FOR GOVERNOR” lead paperweight shaped like a bull.Bull Connor, one of the 3 most famous segregationists, became a symbol of the fight against integration for using fire hoses and police attack dogs against unarmed, nonviolent protest marchers. Birmingham, Alabama’s famous Police Commissioner Eugene “Bull” Connor ran (unsuccessfully) for governor of Alabama and gave away these lead paperweights shaped like a bull.
This letter to the editor from April 1, 1956 is from H.B. (Ben) Inzer who attended a meeting called to form a white Citizens Council. He describes Bull Connor as “wonderful” and describes Connor’s talk on segregation as “inspiring”. Inzer (the writer) says, “Through talking to many Negroes here in Margaret, Ala., I am fully convinced that it is not the Negroes of Alabama who want integration, but they are being pushed by the agents of the Communists.”
This very rare book “The Jim Clark Story: I Saw Selma Raped” was written by Sheriff Jim Clark in 1966, one year after the infamous “Bloody Sunday” event where, as Sheriff of Selma, Alabama, he oversaw the beatings of men, women, and children who were engaged in a peaceful Voting Rights march.
In 1968, to promote the infamous segregationist Presidential candidate George Wallace, these pins were distributed. This one says “No Buss’in For Uss’in (an anti-bussing theme), which was a big deal back then, when the U.S. Supreme Court allowed students to be bussed to different schools further away from home to allow for racial diversification.
This June 9, 1963 edition of The Montgomery Advertiser has a cover story of “Wallace Plans Call for 500 Guardsmen”. Other cover articles include “JFK Woos Far West Negro Vote” and “Southerner Gives Threat of Filibuster”. Of particular interest on the front page is this announcement: “States Rights Party Slates Rally Tonight” where they will “outline a plan of action to stop all race-mixing in Alabama and win the struggle for the survival of our great white race.” The speakers, Dr. Edward R. Fields and J.B. Stoner are infamous Klansmen, one of which is STILL ACTIVE TODAY in white supremist and anti-Jewish doctrine.
This is segregationist Governor George Wallace’s autograph on an old black and white photo (5×7, I think). Photo shows condition (scuff on left cheekbone, wrinkling in left corner). Additional photos not included in collection.
This May 28, 1963 edition of The Selma Times-Journal shows the headline “JUDGE REFUSES TO ORDER BIRMINGHAM SCHOOL MIX“. Another article just below the headline reads “Jackson next for mass effort by Negro leaders“. Includes a very interesting Op/Ed piece titled “Uncle Tom, 1963 Model” which accuses Martin Luther King of “provoking violence” and states “…Dr. King is risking the worst interracial violence of modern times.”
“Elect Ryan deGraffenried, Governor” brochure, political card, and support letter. All are in VG condition with the brochure having a small bend to the lower corner and the support letter (with the quote “Leadership-Education-Segregation“) having a 1” tear on the top and light soiling on the very bottom.
The letter from which these came was opened on the left-hand side, and deGraffenreid’s photo is shown on all four items.
This May 28, 1963 edition of the Selma Times-Journal and September 11, 1964 edition of The Columbus Georgia Ledger contain multiple segregation era advertisements. Among them: “WHITE woman to do baby sitting in my home daily“. The other reads “WANTED: Settled colored woman for general house work on Florida coast. Summer months. Call 2-1332.”
This September 23, 1959 edition of The Courier-Journal has multiple segregation advertisements in the classifieds section. Included are “BAKER, pastries; white,…” “CARE for 2 school age boys; light housework; white;…” and “For Colored; Property For Rent”
A Handbook for Integrated Schooling issued by the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1976, PB, 88 pages.
This handbook was issued to educators in RI by the Office for Civil Rights in Education. The handbook includes: Objectives of Integrated Education, Characteristics of Effective Integrated Schools, Multi-Ethnic Teaching, The Goal of Equity and much more. Very good condition.
This is a mailer from J.D. Stietenroth, a Mississippi segregationist candidate for Senate, Hinds County. The letter is sent to “Hinds County Permit Department” in Jackson, Mississippi. It is an open letter to Mayor Allen Thompson about electric rates. In the letter he accuses the power company of inappropriate spending on, among other things, whiskey (during a time when Mississippi was a dry state).
This is a large pin-back from infamous segregationist Governor George Wallace; it says “STAND UP FOR AMERICA”. Pin has light rust on the back. Based on the photo, I’m guessing this was Wallace’s 1964 bid for President.
This is a 1937 letter from the Fort Valley Normal and Industrial School in Fort Valley, Georgia. The letterhead states “Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools For The Training of Colored Youth“.
It states, “I thank you for your letter of the 27th inst. to Principal H.A. Hunt and I write to inform you that there is a motion picture theatre in Fort Valley which provides entertainment for the colored people here.”
This note from Leflore County in Greenwood, Mississippi is dated Sept. 4, 1905 and certifies that road taxes paid by five African-Americans was paid in error. It also includes 5 receipts for the five men mentioned. The note reads “To Ed Jones, To Road tax erroneously paid for the following negroes, to wit: Columbus Jiles, Jaxon Underwood, Ben House, Young House and Dick Lawrence, as per attached receipts. $15.00 I hereby certify that three of the above negroes are over the age of 50 years and the other two are ruptured according to the statement of Dr. W.D. Wilson.” It is signed by (what appears to be) Eali Ethridge.
This January 1955 edition of “The National Police Gazette” has a photo of Rocky Marciano with the cover story “What’s Ahead for the Negro Under Desegregation”. This was 8 months after the “Great Decision”–1954’s Brown Vs. Board of Education establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.