This typed letter was signed by the infamous segregationist Governor George C. Wallace on June 5, 1964, while Governor of the State of Alabama. This is an anti-Civil Rights document with such quotes as “…As you know I am currently running in Presidential Primaries throughout the country and already have received an overwhelming protest vote against the Civil Rights bill…I believe that the majority of the people of this country do not wish to see this bill passed…“
This vintage 12 pound brass fire nozzle is stamped “BFD 23” to designate its use from the Birmingham, Alabama Fire Station #23. One of the most iconic and disturbing moments of the Civil Rights Movement was when the Commissioner of Public Safety, Bull Connor, ordered the Birmingham, Alabama Fire Department to use fire hoses on men, women, and children demonstrators. “Connor ordered the city’s fire hoses, set at a level that would peel bark off a tree or separate bricks from mortar, to be turned on the children. Boys’ shirts were ripped off, and young women were pushed over the tops of cars by the force of the water. When the students crouched or fell, the blasts of water rolled them down the asphalt streets and concrete sidewalks.” (McWhorter, p. 370–371)Continue reading “Vintage Birmingham, AL Fire Nozzle”
This 1950’s pamphlet “Freedom, the South, and Nonviolence” was published by Fellowship of Reconciliation. It is a plea for funding to support those boycotting the buses in Montgomery, Alabama. It states, “In the immediate present, it has been demonstrated dramatically by thousands of Negroes in Montgomery, Alabama, as they have trudged the streets of that city, and organized a complicated system of carpools, rather than submit any longer to segregation on the city’s buses. India’s millions, led by Gandhi, and Montgomery’s thousands, led by twenty-six Negro clergymen, have demonstrated how nonviolent resistance operates at its best….Where such campaigns begin, send your own words of encouragement and support to its leaders. Let them know that you understand their goals and their methods, and that you are praying for their success. The knowledge that thousands of other Americans are with them can mean a great deal to men and women surrounded by hostility and Continue reading “1950’s FUNDRAISING BROCHURE FOR MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT”
This letter from US Attorney General Herbert Brownell, Jr. is addressed to James E. Folsom, Governor of Alabama. The Governor was apparently asking for help from the FBI and Department of Justice related to the bombing of 4 churches and two minister’s homes on January 10, 1957, just weeks after the Supreme Court ordered the desegregation of Montgomery’s city bus system. All four churches — Bell Street Baptist, Hutchinson Street Baptist, First Street Baptist and Mount Olive — and the pastors, Ralph Abernathy and Robert Graetz (the only white minister to publicly support the bus boycott), had actively supported the Montgomery bus boycott that had ended a month earlier. On Sunday, Jan. 13, 1957, the four congregations held services amid the debris. Continue reading “1957 US ATTORNEY GEN’L SIGNED LETTER (ABOUT MONTGOMERY BOMBINGS)”
In July 1962, Dr. W. G. Anderson attracted national attention with his performance on the television news show Meet the Press, where he successfully defended the movement to hostile white newsmen. Anderson was standing in for King, who was imprisoned at the time for his role in the Albany demonstrations. This letter from Anderson to Meet the Press producer and host Lawrence Spivak (written 45 days after the interview) reveals his thoughts about the historic television event. In it, he says, “This program gave to me the opportunity to tell to the world the plight of the American Negro in a manner that could only be told through searching interrogation.”
W. G. Anderson is famous for being the leader of the Albany Movement, a famous chapter of the Civil Rights Movement, where Dr. King suffered a rare public loss. This loss taught invaluable lessons that would contribute to the overwhelming success of the Birmingham Campaign…. Continue reading “Signed Letter from Dr. W.G. Anderson, Leader of the Albany Movement”
This small handbill (6 1/4″ x 8 1/2″) advertises a mass meeting “In Protest of RACIAL DISCRIMINATION In Certain Montgomery County Schools” just 5 months after Brown v. Board of Education. It says, “Sponsored by the Montgomery County Citizens Action Committee, Rev. Joseph W. Jackson, Chairman. Cooperating Agency North Hills Branch – N.A.A.C.P.
Hear: Rev. Marshall L. Shepard, Raymond Pace Alexander, Gertrude Ely, Dr. Irwin Griggs, Dr. E. Luther Cunningham, Robert N. C. Nix, and others.
St. Charles Auditorium, Walnut and Moore Streets. Norristown, PA. Continue reading “1954 Mass Meeting Handbill NAACP”
This segregationist letter to Arkansas Governor Orville Faubus protests the integration of Central High School in Little Rock with explicit instructions to the Governor. The author states that this is his second letter. “…The U.S.A. Government Army is in control of Little Rick Central High School...Your Arkansas State Attorney General should draw up a rental agreement and lease Little Rock Central High School at One Million Dollars a Month Rent. If the U.S.A. Government defaults on paying this rental, the Arkansas State Attorney General should serve the U.S.A. Government with a thirty day eviction notice…This will teach the U.S.A. Government that Eisenhower Crimes against Arkansas State Government does not pay…Might does not make right, as President Eisenhower declares with his Paratroopers at Little Rock without declaring Martial Law…Go to it Governor Faubus and make these U.S.A. Government un-American Cowards eat their own chosen and executed U.S.A. Constitution Defying and Human Beastiality Mess they have no one to blame for but themselves….one wonders whether his mental capacities are sufficient to discharge the duties of the President of the United States….These Paratroopers with planted bayonets are guilty of criminal intent and actions against Little Rick Civilians who were not even armed. Any Newspaper Editor who praises these Paratroopers Conduct at Little Rock…is an enemy of Our U.S.A. Constitution same as the paratroopers with their bayonets…So will Integration be ruled out when the dumb buck Negro realizes his U.S.A. Supreme Court Integration Order has no force of honest U.S.A. Constitution Law and Order… Continue reading “1957 Segregationist Letter to Gov. Faubus (Little Rock 9)”
This February 1st, 1965 edition of the El Paso Herald-Post leads with the bold (all-caps) headline “DR. KING, 270 MARCHERS ARRESTED.” The sub-headline states “Negro Leader Later Freed; Re-Arrested.” This newspaper tells the story of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s arrest and re-arrest in Selma, Alabama after leading a large protest march for the right to vote…. Continue reading “1965 Dr. King and 270 Marchers Arrested (Selma)”
Famed attorney and civil rights activist Wiley Branton and Ralph Abernathy are mentioned.
The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s was highly controversial in many black churches, where the minister preached spiritual salvation rather than political activism. The National Baptist Convention became deeply split; J.H. Jackson, President of the National Baptist Convention, had supported the Montgomery bus boycott of 1956, but by 1960 he told his denomination they should not become involved in civil rights activism. Jackson’s vocal stance for “civil rights through law and order” went in direct opposition to the methods of civil disobedience advocated by King. As pastor of Olivet Church on the south side of Chicago, seven years after King’s death, Jackson would have the congregation spend upward of $50,000 to seal up the stone doors facing South Parkway and carve out another entrance around the corner, just so the church address never would be listed on the street to be renamed Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive, after Jackson’s nemesis. Continue reading “1958 J.H. JACKSON (anti-civil rights) National Baptist Convention PIN”
Besides Albany, GA, St. Augustine, FL is probably the greatest unsung civil rights battlefield. Conspicuous among the civil rights legends from this amazing chapter of history, is 72-year-old Mary Peabody (“Grandmother Peabody”) who flew from Boston to St. Augustine in the last week of March of 1964 to participate in sit-ins which were famously volatile and often violent. As the mother of Massachusett’s Governor (Endicott Peabody), Mary Peabody’s unusual participation was a turning point that generated publicity and put an international spotlight on demonstrations in St. Augustine. Martin Luther King, Jr., sent a public telegram to then-Governor of Massachusetts stating, “I have been so deeply inspired by your mother’s creative witness in Florida.”Continue reading “Signed Letter From Mary Peabody After Famed St. Augustine Arrest”
Two Fayette County, Alabama Democratic ballots from 1941 and 1956. Note the logo of the chicken and the “WHITE SUPREMACY….FOR THE RIGHT” banner used by the Democratic Party at the time. The official overtly racist logo of the Alabama Democratic Party was adopted in 1904 and not replaced until 1966.
The 1956 ballot shows the notorious Eugene Bull Connor as candidate for “Delegate to National Democratic Convention”. Bull Connor famously used firehoses and police dogs on men, women, and children protesters during the famed Birmingham demonstrations of 1963.
Many historians cite the lynching of Emmett Till as the unofficial beginning of the Civil Rights Movement. Years ago I wrote to Emmett’s mother, Mamie Till Mobley, telling her of a heavy burden I carried for her son and committing to tell his story. The attached note was her reply.
Mrs. Till Mobley passed away in 2003.
This is the September 25, 1957 edition of The Evening Sun newspaper from Baltimore, MD. The headline reads “9 NEGROES ENTER ARK. SCHOOL, MAN BAYONETED IN BRIEF CLASH.”
The Little Rock Nine were a group of African American students enrolled in previously all-white Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas. They then attended after the intervention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.Continue reading ““9 Negroes Enter Ark. School” (Little Rock 9)”
COMPLETE newspaper, the Dallas Morning News dated Sept 5, 1957. Front page headline and famous photo of Elizabeth Eckford and Hazel Bryan Massery. One of the most infamous photos of the Civil Rights Movement, it came to symbolize the vehement (and sometimes violent) rejection of integrated schooling by whites. Eckford was one of the “Little Rock Nine” who integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas after the President sent the 101st Airborne to escort the nine African American children into the school (after the Governor of Arkansas called out the Arkansas National Guard to prevent their entry). Click here to see autograph of Hazel Bryan Massery. Newspaper was Continue reading ““LITTLE ROCK NINE” INFAMOUS FRONT PAGE: ELIZABETH ECKFORD & HAZEL BRYAN MASSERY”
The heading of this postcard states “Martin Luther King at Communist Training school.” ON BACK: “Lower left, arms folded, is Abner W. Berry of the Central Communist Party. To King’s right, Aubrey Williams, pres. of the communist front SCEF, and Myles Horton, dir. Highlander Folk School for communist training at Monteagle, Tenn. Picture taken by secret counteragent during Red Workshop in race agitation.“
This program was handed-out at the silver anniversary Oklahoma Conference of Branches, NAACP on November 17 and 18th 1955. The legendary T.M.R. Howard and Thurgood Marshall were the featured speakers. The theme was “INTEGRATION”.
Howard moved into the national limelight as never before after the murder of Emmett Till in August 1955 and the trial of his killers, J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant in September. He delivered “[o]ne of the earliest and loudest denunciations of Till’s murder,” saying that if “the slaughtering of Negroes is allowed to continue, Mississippi will have a civil war. Negroes are only going to take so much.” He was also heavily involved in the search for evidence and gave over his home to be a “black command center” for witnesses Continue reading “1955 TMR HOWARD SPEAKER AT NAACP CONFERENCE RE INTEGRATION (also speaking: Thurgood Marshall)”
This is the May 22, 1961 edition of The Mexia (Texas) Daily News with the headline “700 U.S. MARSHALS SENT TO ALABAMA.” On May 21, 1961, First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama was a refuge for the passengers on the Freedom ride which met with violence at the Greyhound Bus Station in downtown Montgomery. The church was filled with some 1500 worshipers and activists, including Martin Luther King, Jr., Fred Shuttlesworth, Diane Nash, and James Farmer. The building was besieged by 3000 whites who threatened to burn it Continue reading “SIEGE OF 1ST BAPTIST CHURCH (3000 whites try to burn MLK in church)”
In U.S. practice, a poll tax was used as a de facto or implicit pre-condition of the exercise of the ability to vote. This tax emerged in some states of the United States in the late 19th century as part of the Jim Crow laws. After the ability to vote was extended to all races by the enactment of the Fifteenth Amendment, many Southern states enacted poll tax laws as a means of restricting black voters; such laws often included a grandfather clause, which allowed any adult male whose father or grandfather had voted in a specific year prior to the abolition of slavery to vote without paying the tax. These laws, along with unfairly implemented literacy tests and extra-legal intimidation, achieved the desired effect of disfranchising African-American and Native American voters, as well as poor whites.
This complete March 22, 1965 edition of The El Paso Times features the bold headline “King Leads Massive March” about Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s historic march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama… Continue reading “King Leads Massive March, Selma 1965”
In U.S. practice, a poll tax was used as a de facto pre-condition of the exercise of the ability to vote. This tax emerged in some states of the United States in the late 19th century as part of the Jim Crow laws. After the ability to vote was extended to all races by the enactment of the Fifteenth Amendment, many Southern states enacted poll tax laws as a means of restricting black voters; such laws often included a grandfather clause, which allowed any adult male whose father or grandfather had voted in a specific year prior to the abolition of slavery to vote without paying the tax. These laws, along with unfairly implemented literacy tests and extra-legal intimidation, achieved the desired effect of disfranchising African-American and Native American voters, as well as poor whites. Continue reading “Poll Tax Pin”
Governor Orval E. Faubus was the Governor who called out the National Guard to block nine African-American children from entering Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. Typed Letter Signed as Governor, on colored State of Arkansas Letterhead, January 10, 1958. Faubus makes reference to the challenge of integration in the letter by stating (after referencing “Pledge to the South”) “I am most grateful for your thoughtfulness and understanding of our situation.” Boldly signed in black ink.
This May 28, 1961 headline from The Mexia (Texas) Daily News says “RIDERS REMAIN IN JAIL RATHER THAN PAY FINES.” Right under the headline is an article with the title “Kennedy says Negro Could Be President Within 30-40 Years.” The Freedom Riders challenged the status quo by riding interstate buses in the South in mixed racial groups to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation in seating. The Freedom Rides, and the violent reactions they provoked, bolstered Continue reading “1961 FREEDOM RIDERS HEADLINE”
Viola Liuzzo is the only white female martyr of the American Civil Rights Movement. In March of 1965, Liuzzo heeded the call of Martin Luther King Jr. and traveled from Detroit, Michigan, to Selma, Alabama, in the wake of the Bloody Sunday attempt at marching across the Edmund Pettus Bridge. Liuzzo participated in the successful Selma to Montgomery marches and helped with coordination and logistics. At the age of 39, while driving back from a trip shuttling fellow activists to the Montgomery airport, she was fatally hit by shots fired from a pursuing car containing Ku Klux Klan (KKK) members Collie Wilkins, William Eaton, Eugene Thomas, and Gary Thomas Rowe, the latter of whom was actually an undercover informant working for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). In addition Continue reading ““White Mother Slain” Viola Liuzzo 1965″
James Reeb was an American Unitarian Universalist minister, pastor, and activist during the Civil Rights Movement in Washington, D.C. and Boston, Massachusetts. While participating in the Selma to Montgomery marches actions in Selma, Alabama, in 1965, he was murdered by white segregationists, dying of head injuries in the hospital two days after being severely beaten. Three men were tried for Reeb’s murder but were acquitted by an all-white jury. His murder remains officially unsolved.
Frances Bowden is the proprietor of Selma Bail Bonds, which was located adjacent to the crime scene. After the death of Namon (Duck) Hoggle, and learning that William Portwood had admitted to being involved, Bowden gave an account of what she saw that night from the window of her business. In summary, she stated that Elmer Cook, William Stanley Hoggle, Duck Hoggle, and William Portwood assaulted Reverends Reeb, Olsen, and Miller. It was Elmer Cook who swung the club and struck Reverend Reeb
In an attempt to create as much chaos as possible, segregationists disseminated these cards to students at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas during the 1957-1958 school year. The poem refers to Daisy Bates, who was a mentor, advisor, and escort for the nine African-American students integrating Central High School. The poem also refers to Lamb, Tucker, and Matson who were school board members at the time.
A former classmate of Ernest Green (one of the Little Rock 9) acquired this card from the Couch Estate in Little Rock, Arkansas. He confirms that these cards were handed out throughout the school year to keep tension high. Continue reading “Central High School (Little Rock 9) Segregation Cards”
Possibly the most representative example of Klan propaganda, this may be the worst and most disgusting of the publications by the Klan/Citizens’ Councils. Exploiting the murder of Viola Liuzzo, (a true hero of the Civil Rights Movement) by putting her body on the cover of their Klan “Night Riders” magazine as a trophy of their murderous efforts is about as low as it gets.Continue reading “KKK Magazine “Night Riders” about Viola Liuzzo murder”
The front page also has a “Bulletin” about the murder of Viola Liuzzo (see below).
The Selma to Montgomery marches were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile (87 km) highway from Selma, Alabama, to the state capital of Montgomery. Continue reading “Dr. King Leads 30,000 to Alabama Capitol”
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was held in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. The purpose of the march was to advocate for the civil and economic rights of African Americans. At the march, Martin Luther King Jr., standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial, delivered his historic “I Have a Dream” speech in which he called for an end to racism. Continue reading “Pin from the Historic 1963 March On Washington”
“A First Step Toward School Integration” is a pamphlet from the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE). Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. states at the beginning of the Foreward, “Can the method of non-violence that erased the color line in Montgomery’s buses be applied effectively to schools? This pamphlet seeks an answer to that question, so urgent in southern communities where the Supreme Court decision of 1954 is not yet accepted.“Continue reading “1958 RARE INTEGRATION PAMPHLET (CORE)”
Three separate newspapers covering the story of the Landmark 1954 Brown versus Board of Education Decision (click “view full size” after selecting photo) in the May 17, 1954 Atlanta Journal, the Chattanooga News-Free Press, and the May 18th, 1954 Chattanooga Daily Times. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The decision effectively overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court’s unanimous (9–0) decision stated that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.”Continue reading “1954 SEGREGATION OUTLAWED [BROWN V BOARD] THREE NEWSPAPERS”
This 1960’s Monson Motor Lodge brochure advertises the hotel where Martin Luther King was arrested and also where the hotel manager famously poured acid in the pool where an interracial group was protesting the segregation Continue reading “1960’s HOTEL WHERE MLK WAS ARRESTED/MANAGER PUT ACID IN POOL WHEN BLACKS SWAM (brochure)”
Violence and threats of violence against people of color threatened to keep them from voting. This booklet was created in an effort to reduce fear and discouragement among African-Americans contemplating the vote. Notice that the booklet is edited by Jim Peck, the most famously brutalized Freedom Rider (one year prior to the publication of this booklet). 22 pages, The Right To Vote by James McCain, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 1962. A phenomenal artifact demonstrating one of the strategies incorporated to persuade African-Americans to vote.Continue reading “1962 CORE “THE RIGHT TO VOTE””
Rosa Lee Ingram was an African American woman whose 1948 murder conviction, along with the conviction of two of her adolescent sons, raised considerable doubt about the integrity of Georgia’s judicial system. Civil rights organizations launched an ambitious campaign to free the Ingrams in the years that followed.
This anti-Martin Luther King, Jr. pamphlet is authored by Dr. Billy James Harris and is published by the Christian Crusade. Its opening sentence says, “Recent statements by race agitator Martin Luther King, Jr., clearly indicate that it is time to rip off his pious mask and reveal the real purpose and drive behind his anti-American activities.
This 1966 anti-Civil Rights newsletter is titled “RACIAL VIOLENCE AND HATRED” and is ironically from “Americans for Civil Harmony.” In it, it attributes the fight for equality and civil rights to a communist plot. It links Dr. King with illegal liquor sales and “promiscuous lewdness”; it identifies several of his aides as “sex perverts” and “identified communists“. It relies heavily on “perceptive critic”: J. Edgar Hoover. This newsletter was part of the FBI propaganda campaign to discredit the Civil Rights Movement.
This bumper sticker is protesting James Meredith’s enrollment at the University of Mississippi (Ole Miss). The backing is still on the sticker. It is in good condition. In 1962, James Meredith was the first African-American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi, an event that was a flash point in the African-American civil rights movement. Continue reading “1962 ANTI-JAMES MEREDITH BUMPER STICKER”
Published in 1964, this is a large 95-page booklet covering the Civil Rights Movement from 1957-1964. Full of photos, this book covers the Civil Rights Movement from Little Rock (1957) to the Protest at the World’s Fair (1964). Photo shows that the booklet has water damage. Continue reading “1964 “CIVIL RIGHTS AND CIVIL WRONGS””
This 4 page political booklet is titled “More Civil Rights Double-Talk and More Goose Eggs”. It was distributed by the Republican Congressional Committee in 1952 on behalf of Senator H. Alexander Smith. The 4 page booklet is white (though discolored by age) with red and black print. It includes political cartoons and photos of Eisenhower, Nixon, and Smith. The content of the booklet details “Republican proposals for Civil Rights issues” and highlights the Democratic party’s push for “White Supremacy”. The booklet is not torn and other than slightly aged, is in mint condition. Continue reading “1952 REPUBLICAN CIVIL RIGHTS BROCHURE”
The A. G. Gaston Motel is a former motel located at 1510 5th Avenue North, now part of Birmingham’s “Civil Rights District”. It was constructed in 1954 by businessman A. G. Gaston to provide higher-class service to black visitors during the city’s decades of strictly-segregated business and recreation. It would become Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s headquarters for Birmingham’s “Project C” leading to the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Continue reading “A.G. GASTON MOTEL (2 MATCHBOOKS)”
This matchbook cover is for the infamous Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee where on April 4th, 1968 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated while standing on its balcony in front of room 306…. Continue reading “Lorraine Motel Matchbook Cover”
This is the famous and historic headline from the October 2, 1962 edition of The New York Times reporting THE END OF SEGREGATION IN MISSISSIPPI when James Meredith integrated the all-white University of Alabama. White segregationists from around the state joined students and locals in a violent, 15-hour riot on the campus on September 30, in which two people were killed execution style, hundreds were wounded, and six federal marshals were shot. Continue reading “1962 NEGRO ENROLLMENT “ENDS SEGREGATION IN MISSISSIPPI” (James Meredith)”
The A. G. Gaston Motel is a former motel located at 1510 5th Avenue North, now part of Birmingham’s “Civil Rights District”. It was constructed in 1954 by businessman A. G. Gaston to provide higher-class service to black visitors during the city’s decades of strictly-segregated business and recreation. It would become Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s headquarters for Birmingham’s “Project C” leading to the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Continue reading “1950’s A. G. Gaston Motel Postcard”
This is the front page of the May 13, 1963 issue of the Winnipeg Free Press newspaper featuring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. with American “Stars and Bars” artistically creating a jail cell. This was based on his historic incarceration in Birmingham (the month before) where he penned the “Letter from Birmingham Jail”.
This infamous photo, plastered over the cover of the July 13, 1963 edition of “The Birmingham News” shows a large photo on the cover allegedly showing Dr. King in a communist training school and says “These four horsemen of racial agitation have brought tension, disturbance, strife and Continue reading “1963 “MLK AT COMMUNIST TRAINING SCHOOL””
On March 31st, 1964, 72-year-old Mary Peabody was arrested for attempting to integrate the cocktail lounge at the Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge in St. Augustine, Florida. This brochure shows a date of 1962, two years before the arrest. Peabody wasn’t the only person to test segregation at the hotel or in St. Augustine, but as the white mother of Massachusett’s Governor Endicott Peabody, she was among the most famous to be arrested. Mary Peabody’s unusual participation was a turning point that generatedpublicity and put an international spotlight on demonstrations in St. Augustine. Martin Luther King, Jr., sent a public telegram to then-Governor of Massachusetts stating, “I have been so deeply inspired by your mother’s creative witness in Florida.” Interestingly, press photos of her separate encounters with law enforcement can be matched to chairs from two different rooms on this brochure which identify the cocktail lounge, and the Terrace Dining Room where she would be arrested (see attached photos below).
Vernon Johns (April 22, 1892 – June 11, 1965) is considered by some as the father of the American Civil Rights Movement, having laid the foundation on which Martin Luther King, Jr. and others would build. Johns was a courageous and vocal opponent of segregation. In 1926, he was the first African-American to have his work published in Best Sermons of the Year; this was a personal triumph for Johns as he had repeatedly submitted sermons for consideration in previous years Continue reading “1926 RARE VERNON JOHNS PUBLISHED SERMON”
This April 30, 1950 edition of The Mobile Press Register is complete and inside features a VERY large (14″ x 5″) political ad for Eugene ‘Bull’ Connor as a candidate for Governor of the state of Alabama. This ad says that he is “Alabama’s States’ Rights Democrat.” As Safety Commissioner, Bull Connor became a symbol of the segregated south after journalists captured the violent aftermath of his instruction to the Birmingham Fire Department to put their water hoses on demonstrators and ordered the Birmingham Police Department to attack demonstrators with police dogs…. Continue reading “1950 Bull Connor Segregation Political Ad”
This booklet titled “MARTIN LUTHER KING AND THE MONTGOMERY STORY” was published by the Fellowship of Reconciliation and sold for ten cents. The subtitle says, “How 50,000 Negroes found a new way to end racial discrimination.”
Martin Luther King’s relationship with the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR) began during the Montgomery bus boycott, when FOR veteran Bayard Rustin Continue reading “1958 MONTGOMERY STORY COMIC (Fellowship of Reconciliation)”
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC; often pronounced “snick”) was one of the most important organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a student meeting organized by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960.
This 1956 Advertisement is a double-sided card intended for distribution within the black community. On one side it lists all of Eisenhower’s desegregation accomplishments that have benefitted African-Americans; the other side claims that Stevenson is a “fence-sitter”.
It shows that under Eisenhower…
“No more segregation in Washington D.C.–Hotels, Restaurants, and Schools, over 300 jobs for Negroes paying $6,000-$17,500 per year, no more segregation in Veterans Hospitals, no more separate water fountains or rest rooms in Navy shipyards, no more segregation in the Armed Forces.”
This 1971 book was “printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary” and is a compilation of hearings before the Civil Rights Oversight Subcommittee on the Enforcement of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. It is a rare “time capsule” of everything that was said before the House of Representatives during this turbulent time.
This is the infamous photo of Amelia Boynton Robinson being gassed and beaten on Bloody Sunday March 7th, 1965. She was eventually left for dead after being beaten with a billy club for her participation in a peaceful march (across the Edmund Pettus Bridge) for the right to vote. Evidence that this photo went around the world is the fact this is an original press photo from a Latin American country (everything is in Spanish).
Click here to see the autographed copy of Ms. Boynton Robinson’s autobiography.
This Freedom School Poetry book from 1966 is quite a jewel from SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee). Please read the posted photo (dedicated to Emmett Till); it concludes regarding these poems and paintings that “These are the expressions of the young freedom school students of Mississippi.”Continue reading “SNCC “FREEDOM SCHOOL POETRY””
This 1963 brochure from the NAACP says “From Morning until Night…Humiliation Stalks Them”. This is the text of the testimony of Roy Wilkins, NAACP Executive Secretary, July 22, 1963, in supporting the public accommodations section (Title II, S.1731) of the proposed civil rights bill being considered by the Senate Commerce Committee. It says, “…our faltering fealty to the great ideal of ‘all men’ set down in our Declaration of Independence, has shaken the confidence of the millions of mankind who seek freedom and peace. Do we mean ‘all men’ or do we just say so? Is our nation the leader of the free world or of the white world? Are we for democracy in southeast Asia, but for Jim Crow at home?” Continue reading “1963 “HUMILIATION STALKS THEM” (NAACP BROCHURE)”