A. Philip Randolph Signed Photograph

A. Philip Randolph

A. Philip Randolph was an American labor unionist, civil rights legend, and socialist politician. Randolph led a 10-year drive to organize the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) and served as the organization’s first president. Randolph arranged for Bayard Rustin to teach Martin Luther King, Jr. how to organize peaceful demonstrations for the Montgomery Bus Boycott  in Alabama. Randolph directed the March on Washington movement to end employment discrimination

Continue reading “A. Philip Randolph Signed Photograph”

“She Will Be Sold With Or Without Her (3-yr-old) Child”

The sickening practice of permanently separating children from parents was commonplace during the slave trade. This advertisement from the February 17, 1795 edition of The Daily Advertiser states “For Sale, A likely young Black Woman with her male child, she is twenty four years old, and the boy three and a half years old….She will be sold with or without her child.” This newspaper includes 2 other slave-related advertisements (see below) and an advertisement for “The Manumission Society…The quarterly meeting of the society for promoting the manumission of Slaves.”

Continue reading ““She Will Be Sold With Or Without Her (3-yr-old) Child””



This typed letter was signed by the infamous segregationist Governor George C. Wallace on June 5, 1964, while Governor of the State of Alabama.  This is an anti-Civil Rights document with such quotes as “…As you know I am currently running in Presidential Primaries throughout the country and already have received an overwhelming protest vote against the Civil Rights bill…I believe that the majority of the people of this country do not wish to see this bill passed…


Fred Shuttlesworth Signed Bethel Baptist Church Postcard-Postmarked 1958

This postcard of Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth’s Birmingham church is signed by the reverend on the front and is postdated 1958 on the reverse. 1958 was a historic year for the legendary civil rights icon. In 1958 Shuttlesworth: 1) survives an attempted bombing of his church (after it had been bombed 2 years prior), 2) petitions for the desegregation of Birmingham city schools, 3) renews a lawsuit to desegregate the city’s parks, 4) begins hounding Dr. King to come to Birmingham for a massive campaign against segregation, 5) is arrested for sitting in the white section of a city bus, and 6) becomes secretary of the SCLC (until 1970).

Continue reading “Fred Shuttlesworth Signed Bethel Baptist Church Postcard-Postmarked 1958”

1860 Ungrateful Runaway Committed “Grand Larceny of His Own Body” and Deserves Severe Flogging


This May 12, 1860 edition of the New York Weekly Tribune features three interesting slave-related articles. “A deplorable instance of the mental darkness and obliquity of the African race has just been brought to light. An ebony chattel calling himself William Bracker—a name which probably belongs to his master—most ungratefully tired of working for such hog and hominy as is freely accorded to chattels in the patriarchal State of South Carolina—resolved to commit a grand larceny of his own body and bones, hide, features and wool—as villainous chattels have been known to do ere now—and, to this end, stowed himself away on board the steamship…If that negro should ever again be caught aboard of a vessel chartered by a regiment of Democratic officeholders and office-seekers, in the hope of thus escaping slavery, he will deserve for his stupidity a far severer flogging than his master has now in store for him.”… Continue reading “1860 Ungrateful Runaway Committed “Grand Larceny of His Own Body” and Deserves Severe Flogging”

1863 Safehouse Operator On Underground Railroad Writes “You May Direct (slaves?) to Canton”

This is an August 25, 1863 letter from abolitionist John Van Fleet whose home was used as a safe house on the Underground Railroad in Ohio. Two years before the end of slavery and the end of the Civil War, Van Fleet writes this cryptic letter to Mr. Harkness where he states that “I have been talking with some…they seem to express an anxious feeling to see you there.” “I have been sorry at times that I entered into a compromise of our matters.” “Come over at your earliest convenience and I will meet you any place designated.” “PS} You may Direct to Canton as I will be there considerable of the time for a while to come. Direct slaves? While “You may direct to…” was a common phrase to designate where to direct written correspondence, one cannot help but wonder if, since Van Fleet was an Underground Railroad safe house operator, this phrase has a critically important double meaning–especially with his ambiguous reference to “our matters.” It is signed “J.P. Van Fleet” After the PS, he signs “JPVF”

1822 Slave Ad: “Ranaway…Negro woman Harriet, who has a white male child…”

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This October 8, 1822 edition of the General Advertiser (Easton, MD) has a total of 15 slave-related advertisements including one that says, “RANAWAY or was kinappped…a negro woman named HARRIET, who has a white male child, about one year old…Her child is named William Alford Henry, but generally called Alford. She has generally been used to house work, such as plain cooking, &c. and is much addicted to snuff rubbing…” Continue reading “1822 Slave Ad: “Ranaway…Negro woman Harriet, who has a white male child…””

Vintage Birmingham, AL Fire Nozzle

This vintage 12 pound brass fire nozzle is stamped “BFD 23” to designate its use from the Birmingham, Alabama Fire Station #23. One of the most iconic and disturbing moments of the Civil Rights Movement was when the Commissioner of Public Safety, Bull Connor, ordered the Birmingham, Alabama Fire Department to use fire hoses on men, women, and children demonstrators. “Connor ordered the city’s fire hoses, set at a level that would peel bark off a tree or separate bricks from mortar, to be turned on the children. Boys’ shirts were ripped off, and young women were pushed over the tops of cars by the force of the water. When the students crouched or fell, the blasts of water rolled them down the asphalt streets and concrete sidewalks.” (McWhorter, p. 370–371)

Continue reading “Vintage Birmingham, AL Fire Nozzle”


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This menu is from the nightclub that Malcolm X describes affectionately in his autobiography. Malcolm X worked there as a day waiter between 1942 and 1943. At Smalls, Malcolm makes a good impression on the customers and on his employers, and learns various hustling techniques, the etiquette of the Harlem underworld, and the history of the neighborhood. With his tips, Malcolm begins to invest a lot of money in the numbers racket, the popular unofficial lottery in Harlem. Continue reading “SMALLS PARADISE MENU (MALCOLM X)”


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This is The Natchez Weekly Courier from September 24, 1856.  It is a four-page weekly that is COMPLETE and in fine condition.  There are nine different slave advertisements with two of them illustrated; four of the slave ads are relating to runaways.  One of the slave ads is for Lewis, a 26-year-old runaway with the horrific statement, “…a scar under his left eye, and he has been badly whipped.”  I have never seen a more haunting statement in a runaway slave advertisement. Click for six more photos… Continue reading “1856 “BADLY WHIPPED” RUNAWAY SLAVE (9 TOTAL SLAVE ADS)”


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This March 13, 1855 edition of the New York Tribune includes an article about an advertisement for “Negro Dogs.”  It states, “I would inform the citizens of Holmes County that i still have my NEGRO DOGS and that they are in good training and ready to attend to all calls of hunting and catching RUNAWAY NEGROES at the following rates.  For hunting per day, five dollars Continue reading “1855 SLAVE AD: DOGS FOR “HUNTING AND CATCHING RUNAWAY NEGROES””


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This August 30, 1828 edition of the National Intelligencer has 7 slave ads.  One advertises a FORTY DOLLARS REWARD for a 17 or 18-year-old named William.  “He is of a bright yellow complexion…his hair nearly straight; is an excellent house servant and waiter, and unusually smart and intelligent for one of his color.”  Another advertises FIFTY DOLLARS REWARD for SYE.  “When he left home had a swollen face and a cut finger occasioned from an attack made by him on his overseer a few days before he absconded.  His wife is living in Washington City, with Mr. John Baker, who hires Continue reading “1828: 1) RUNAWAY WITH SWOLLEN FACE AND CUT FINGER FROM FIGHT WITH OVERSEER 2) RUNAWAY TEEN “UNUSUALLY SMART AND INTELLIGENT FOR ONE OF HIS COLOR””

1922 Poll Tax & Real Estate doc for Son of Historic Slave J.A. Beebe

This Real Estate and Personal Property tax document mentions “poll tax” for “Negro” J.A. Bebee, but it is signed W.T. Beebe in Beaufort County, North Carolina (in Washington “township”). Note that both the signed first and last names are different than the name printed on the front of the document, suggesting that the printed name on page one is a clerical error. This is historically very interesting because J.A. Beebe bought his freedom for $2300 and made a name for himself in Beaufort, North Carolina first as a pastor and then Bishop, establishing many CME churches around the country… Continue reading “1922 Poll Tax & Real Estate doc for Son of Historic Slave J.A. Beebe”


Natl Intel 5    Natl Intel 2   Natl Intel 1

This September 6, 1828 edition of The National Intelligencer (Washington D.C.) has a total of 5 slave ads. The first offers “FORTY DOLLARS REWARD” for “my Negro Woman, LETTY BROWN, taking with her, her two children, Bob and Dave…she is about 35 or 40 years of age.  Bob is about 7 years of age…and carries his head on one side.  Dave is about two years of age, of a yellow complexion…he has, also, a scar on the right or left arm, just above the elbow, occasioned by a burn which he received a few days before he was taken from my residence.  The said woman and her children were taken off on Sunday night…by a yellow man of George Calvert’s, living near Bladensburgh, who calls himself Tarlton Brown, and who owns her as his wife.” Continue reading “1828 Slave Ads: 1) 2-YR-OLD HAS “SCAR ON ARM BY BURN REC’D A FEW DAYS BEFORE TAKEN FROM MY RESIDENCE” 2) “FOR SALE FOR LIFE” 10 YR-OLD GIRL “OWNER (HAS) NO USE FOR HER”



Deed1     deed5This 1914 deed is for the transfer of a house in Jefferson County, Kentucky.  While no address is given, the lot is listed (including deed book and page number).  This deed is through the Louisville Title Company.  The deed states that “said property shall never be sold or leased to any person or persons of African descent.” Parties involved


1860 How to Feed & Clothe Slaves (Debow’s Review-1860)

DeBow’s Review was the most widely circulated southern periodical during the mid-19th century. Before the Civil War, the magazine would recommend the “best practices” for making slavery profitable. In this collection, two issues are presented, May of 1860 and April of 1866. In this 1860 edition, under a section titled “PECULIARITIES AND DISEASES OF NEGROES” on p. 597-598 (click 2 graphics above), the author notes “In the diet and clothing, as well as in the houses of the negro, his feeble heat-generating powers should be strictly regarded….It has been before stated that the best food of this class fat bacon and pork, corn and peas, as these abound in oil which is a heat-generating element; while corn is also valuable as an element of strength and muscular growth. Besides these, negroes should be liberally supplied with garden vegetables, and with milk and molasses, occasionally, at least….What shall be done with the little “niggers” who are so prone to commence their depredations on the orchard while it is yet in the bud? I would suggest that the orchard be set some distance from the house, and that no negro, small or great, be allowed to visit it except one or two to bring supplies to the rest Continue reading “1860 How to Feed & Clothe Slaves (Debow’s Review-1860)”


DSC08963This 382 page book is in good condition for being 115 years old.  The author is Charles Carroll who claimed that blacks are more akin to apes than to human beings, and theorized that blacks had been the “tempters of Eve.” Carroll said that mulatto brutes were the rapists and murderers of his time (pp. 167, 191, 290-202) and that they should be killed. You will notice (in the photo) a red cloth bookmark; I’m not sure if it’s original, but it matches perfectly. The rebuttal to this book Is the Negro A Beast? was published in 1901 and is also in this collection (see “Racism” category).

DSC08966DSC08969  Continue reading “1900 “THE NEGRO A BEAST OR IN THE IMAGE OF GOD?””

1901 “IS THE NEGRO A BEAST?” (rebuttal to “The Negro A Beast”)

 DSC08945Is the Negro a Beast?: A Reply to Chas. Carroll’s Book Entitled “The Negro A Beast”, Proving that the Negro is Human from Biblical, Scientific, and Historical Standpoints.  Written by William G. Schell, this book is a refutation of the scurrilous book The Negro A Beast or In the Image of God?, apparently popular in Southern US around the turn of the century, which attempted to justify the enslavement of those of African descent, since they “weren’t really human.”  The controversial book that this book is refuting is also available in this collection (see other post in the “Racism” category).

DSC08946  DSC08948 Continue reading “1901 “IS THE NEGRO A BEAST?” (rebuttal to “The Negro A Beast”)”

Slaves “Did Not Work So Hard…Had Advantages” According to History Textbook

This 1957 history textbook titled Cavalier Commonwealth–History and Government of Virginia was commissioned in 1950 by the Virginia General Assembly and describes the circumstances of the American slave as follows: “.. his condition had its advantages . . . he enjoyed long holidays . . . he did not work so hard as the average free laborer, since he did, not have to worry about losing his job. In fact, the slave enjoyed what we might call comprehensive social security. Generally speaking, his food was plentiful, his clothing adequate, his cabin warm, his health protected and his leisure carefree.”

See additional photos of textbook below.

See also “Happy Slaves” Described In 7th Grade Virginia Textbook Used for 20 Yrs.

Continue reading “Slaves “Did Not Work So Hard…Had Advantages” According to History Textbook”

“Happy Slaves” Described In 7th Grade Virginia Textbook Used for 20 Yrs.

Published in 1956 and used in Virginia classrooms through the late 1970’s, Virginia: History, Government, Geography by Francis B. Simkins and Spotswood H. Jones, and Sidman P. Poole describes the life of a Virginia slave as “happy”, “cheerful”, and “prosperous.”

“.…The Negroes learned also to enjoy the work and play of the plantations…Virginia offered a better life for the Negroes than did Africa…”

See also “Slaves Did Not Work So Hard…Had Advantages” According to History Textbook

Continue reading ““Happy Slaves” Described In 7th Grade Virginia Textbook Used for 20 Yrs.”


world geography2     worldgeography3   world geography1  In Chapter 5 titled “Patterns of Immigration”, this 2016 World Geography textbook from McGraw Hill says “The Atlantic Slave Trade between the 1500’s and 1800’s brought millions of workers from Africa to the southern United States to work on agricultural plantations.”  It also says “One of the defining attributes of the United States is that it is largely a country of immigrants and their descendants.  About 13 percent of people in the United States are foreign born, while Native Americans, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians make up about 2 percent of the population.  The remaining population is descended from immigrants.”  Here is the story of how everything “hit the fan” when an African-American mother looked carefully at her son’s geography textbook…

See also “Happy Slaves” Described in 7th Grade Virginia Textbook Used for 20 Yrs.
See also “Slaves Did Not Work So Hard…Had Advantages” According to History Textbook


1949 “WHITE MAN OR NEGRO?” (Ad for movie “Lost Boundaries”)

white man or negroThis 1949 advertisement for the movie “Lost Boundaries” measures 10″x 6.5″ and appears to be for a theater in Alexandria, Virginia.  It says, “If he revealed his secret it would blast four lives wide open!!  So out-of-the-ordinary, you’ll HAVE TO SEE IT TO BELIEVE IT!”

Atlanta banned the film under a statute that allowed its censor to prohibit any film that might “adversely affect the peace, morals, and good order of the city”.  Memphis did so as well, with the head of the Board of Censors saying: “We don’t take that kind of picture here.” Continue reading “1949 “WHITE MAN OR NEGRO?” (Ad for movie “Lost Boundaries”)”

1933 “Mob Cheers As Negro Is Burned Alive”

This November 29, 1933 edition of The Birmingham Post features a cover story titled “Mob Cheers As Negro Is Burned Alive.” It says, “The latest victim of mob vengeance, Lloyd Warner, was dragged from his cell, beaten into insensibility, hanged and then burned…More than two hours after the negro had been hanged, hundreds of citizens surged about the pyre, shouting, laughing and jesting. A festive spirit prevailed….Photographers snapped pictures of the gruesome sceneContinue reading “1933 “Mob Cheers As Negro Is Burned Alive””

1963 Birmingham Segregationist Newsletter Warns Against the “Danger of Mongrelization”

This August 15-21, 1963 copy of the “BIRMINGHAM WEEKLY BULLETIN” is published by the National States Rights Party and is authored by its white supremacist and anti-Semitic founder Dr. Edward R. Fields, who frequently collaborated with the Ku Klux Klan. In the newsletter he warns that “Nothing in our lifetimes can happen to us that could ever be worse than allowing our children to go to school with Negroes.” He then calls out 12 “mixed” stores by name who “have surrendered the hard won rights our forefathers handed down to us which are our sacred traditions and customs–that we do not sit down and eat with negroes.”

Continue reading “1963 Birmingham Segregationist Newsletter Warns Against the “Danger of Mongrelization””

1828 Runaway: “…his sweetheart is a slave.”

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This May 1, 1828 edition of the National Intelligencer includes a runaway slave advertisement stating, “NEGRO LEWIS absconded from the employment of a neighboring farmer sometime in the month of January last, and has not been seen by his employer since. He is about 22 years of age, remarkably stout, and nearly six feet high. Lewis is a fine looking fellow, very cunning, and can look dull, heavy, or sprightly, when he pleases. He will no doubt obtain a forged pass, and make for Pennsylvania. I have been recently informed that his sweetheart is a slave, belonging to Continue reading “1828 Runaway: “…his sweetheart is a slave.””

“We piccaninnies believe in the simple life and watermelon” STEREOVIEW

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This stereo view of a black girl with watermelon continues the odd pairing of black folk with watermelon.  It states, “Did you say watermelon was no good?  Give me liberty and watermelon!  Let the pampered epicure rave over a French ragout, a Chinese bird’s nest soup, or lobster  a la Newburg, we piccaninnies believe in the simple life and watermelon.  Give us a Continue reading ““We piccaninnies believe in the simple life and watermelon” STEREOVIEW”

1965 & 1966 THUNDERBOLT NEWSPAPERS (National States Rights Party)

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These 1965 and 1966 Thunderbolt Newspapers are among the most severe of the racist material in this collection.  One article states, “If King comes marching through your town, get out in the streets with the old rebel yell and rebel flag.  He’ll go running out of town back to Atlanta.” Thunderbolt newspaper was mentioned during the trial of infamous Ku Klux Klansman Tommy Blanton.  Blanton was convicted Continue reading “1965 & 1966 THUNDERBOLT NEWSPAPERS (National States Rights Party)”

“Nigger Head” Desert Vegetation Postcard

IMG_9684This 1940’s postcard features “Varieties of Desert Vegetation” including Spanish Bayonet, Joshua Tree, Agave, Palo Verde, and “Nigger Head”. Horticulturist P.A. Munz’s California Flora and California Desert Wildflowers (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1970) lists Niggerhead cactus as the accepted common name for Echinocactus polycephalus, a small barrel cactus native to California’s southern deserts. Continue reading ““Nigger Head” Desert Vegetation Postcard”

1821 Runaway Child “3 feet, four inches high” (total of 14 slave ads). Paper owned by John Quincy Adams

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This December 11, 1821 edition of the General Advertiser features 14 slave advertisements, 13 of them are runaway ads. Photos for all of them are listed below, but one of them involves a runaway child who is 3 feet four inches high. This newspaper was delivered to and owned by John Quincy Adams when he was Secretary of State in the James Monroe administration. His name “John Q Adams, Esq” is written (not by Adams) in the top left hand blank margin of the front page, and served as a sort of 19th century address label.

Continue reading “1821 Runaway Child “3 feet, four inches high” (total of 14 slave ads). Paper owned by John Quincy Adams”


reconciliation pamphlet   reconciliation pamphlet2   reconciliation pamphlet3

This 1950’s pamphlet “Freedom, the South, and Nonviolence” was published by Fellowship of Reconciliation. It is a plea for funding to support those boycotting the buses in Montgomery, Alabama.  It states, “In the immediate present, it has been demonstrated dramatically by thousands of Negroes in Montgomery, Alabama, as they have trudged the streets of that city, and organized a complicated system of carpools, rather than submit any longer to segregation on the city’s buses.  India’s millions, led by Gandhi, and Montgomery’s thousands, led by twenty-six Negro clergymen, have demonstrated how nonviolent resistance operates at its best….Where such campaigns begin, send your own words of encouragement and support to its leaders.  Let them know that you understand their goals and their methods, and that you are praying for their success.  The knowledge that thousands of other Americans are with them can mean a great deal to men and women surrounded by hostility and Continue reading “1950’s FUNDRAISING BROCHURE FOR MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT”


DSC08838This letter from US Attorney General Herbert Brownell, Jr. is addressed to James E. Folsom, Governor of Alabama. The Governor was apparently asking for help from the FBI and Department of Justice related to the bombing of 4 churches and two minister’s homes on January 10, 1957,  just weeks after the Supreme Court ordered the desegregation of Montgomery’s city bus system. All four churches — Bell Street Baptist, Hutchinson Street Baptist, First Street Baptist and Mount Olive — and the pastors, Ralph Abernathy and Robert Graetz (the only white minister to publicly support the bus boycott), had actively supported the Montgomery bus boycott that had ended a month earlier. On Sunday, Jan. 13, 1957, the four congregations held services amid the debris. Continue reading “1957 US ATTORNEY GEN’L SIGNED LETTER (ABOUT MONTGOMERY BOMBINGS)”

Signed Letter from Dr. W.G. Anderson, Leader of the Albany Movement


Of Dr. King’s seven key direct action campaigns, the least-known occurred in Albany, Georgia with Dr. W.G. Anderson as its leader. In July 1962, Dr. W. G. Anderson attracted national attention with his performance on the television news show Meet the Press, where he successfully defended the movement to hostile white newsmen. Anderson was standing in for King, who was imprisoned at the time for his role in the Albany demonstrations. This letter from Anderson to Meet the Press producer and host Lawrence Spivak (written 45 days after the interview) reveals his thoughts about the historic television event. In it, he says, “This program gave to me the opportunity to tell to the world the plight of the American Negro in a manner that could only be told through searching interrogation.”W.G. Anderson-Albany-Movement-2

W. G. Anderson is famous for being the leader of the Albany Movement, a famous chapter of the Civil Rights Movement, where Dr. King is seen by some as suffering a rare public loss. This loss taught invaluable lessons that would contribute to the overwhelming success of the Birmingham Campaign…. Continue reading “Signed Letter from Dr. W.G. Anderson, Leader of the Albany Movement”

1831 Reward for Conviction of Whites Distributing Abolitionist Newspapers & Nat Turner Drowned (False Report)

This October 29, 1831 edition of the Niles’ Weekly Register was published in Baltimore, MD and reports on “‘Gen. Nat’ It is believed that this distinguished leader of the blacks at the massacre in Virginia, was drowned, in attempting to cross New river. So says a letter to the governor of the state.” Also… Continue reading “1831 Reward for Conviction of Whites Distributing Abolitionist Newspapers & Nat Turner Drowned (False Report)”

1954 Mass Meeting Handbill NAACP


This small handbill (6 1/4″ x 8 1/2″) advertises a mass meeting “In Protest of RACIAL DISCRIMINATION In Certain Montgomery County Schools” just 5 months after Brown v. Board of Education. It says, “Sponsored by the Montgomery County Citizens Action Committee, Rev. Joseph W. Jackson, Chairman. Cooperating Agency North Hills Branch – N.A.A.C.P.

Hear: Rev. Marshall L. Shepard, Raymond Pace Alexander, Gertrude Ely, Dr. Irwin Griggs, Dr. E. Luther Cunningham, Robert N. C. Nix, and others.

St. Charles Auditorium, Walnut and Moore Streets. Norristown, PA. Continue reading “1954 Mass Meeting Handbill NAACP”

1956 “NEGRO AND WHITE” (racist Christian desegregation brochure)”

Negro and White-1This 1954 racist “Christian” desegregation brochure by John R. Rice is titled “Negro and White”.  In it, the author states (regarding the lynching of Emmett Till) “That colored boy, who attempted to…seduce the…white woman, was spurred on by widespread feeling, a cocky attitude agitators have cultivated among colored people.  Remember…a white woman dare not walk the streets alone at night or go anywhere alone at night because of the animosity and the standards of the large negro population….It makes for cases of murder and rape.  It makes for some…cases in which offended white men, even good men, take the law in their own hands.Continue reading “1956 “NEGRO AND WHITE” (racist Christian desegregation brochure)””


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This September 6th, 1825 edition of the National Intelligencer (in Washington DC) contains 3 particularly heartbreaking runaway slave ads.  The first is a “$100 DOLLARS REWARD” for BEN, and states “He can write a pretty good hand, and no doubt has copied the papers of some free man; and I have reason to believe he stole the Stafford County seal and attached the impression of it to his papers.  He carried with him three of his daughters, the property of my neighbor, Moses Kendall, and a Negro Man, the husband of one of Continue reading “1825 SLAVE ADS: 1) “GOOD LOOKING” RUNAWAY MOTHER TAKES 6-YR-OLD WITH “COMPLEXION LIGHTER THAN MOTHER” 2) RUNAWAY TOOK 3 DAUGHTERS (owned by neighbor) 3) RUNAWAY SUCKS THUMB”

1956 “MIXED SCHOOLS AND MIXED BLOOD” (Citizens’ Council, Miss)

mixed blood1     mixed blood2This 1956 brochure contains the speech “Mixed Schools and Mixed Blood” by Herbert Ravenel Sass.  It states “Herbert Ravel Sass, author, presents the fundamental case for the white South.  A native of Charleston, South Carolina, an independent, and an Episocpalian, Mr. Sass is imbued with a tradition which he believes is based on unchanging truth.  His argument goes to the very heart of the controversy: Would integrated schools lead to mixed blood?”

The brochure is published by The Educational Fund of the Citizens’ Councils of Greenwood, Mississippi.

1957 Segregationist Letter to Gov. Faubus (Little Rock 9)

This segregationist letter to Arkansas Governor Orville Faubus protests the integration of Central High School in Little Rock with explicit instructions to the Governor. The author states that this is his second letter. “…The U.S.A. Government Army is in control of Little Rick Central High School...Your Arkansas State Attorney General should draw up a rental agreement and lease Little Rock Central High School at One Million Dollars a Month Rent. If the U.S.A. Government defaults on paying this rental, the Arkansas State Attorney General should serve the U.S.A. Government with a thirty day eviction notice…This will teach the U.S.A. Government that Eisenhower Crimes against Arkansas State Government does not pay…Might does not make right, as President Eisenhower declares with his Paratroopers at Little Rock without declaring Martial Law…Go to it Governor Faubus and make these U.S.A. Government un-American Cowards eat their own chosen and executed U.S.A. Constitution Defying and Human Beastiality Mess they have no one to blame for but themselves….one wonders whether his mental capacities are sufficient to discharge the duties of the President of the United States….These Paratroopers with planted bayonets are guilty of criminal intent and actions against Little Rick Civilians who were not even armed. Any Newspaper Editor who praises these Paratroopers Conduct at Little Rock…is an enemy of Our U.S.A. Constitution same as the paratroopers with their bayonets…So will Integration be ruled out when the dumb buck Negro realizes his U.S.A. Supreme Court Integration Order has no force of honest U.S.A. Constitution Law and OrderContinue reading “1957 Segregationist Letter to Gov. Faubus (Little Rock 9)”

1965 Dr. King and 270 Marchers Arrested (Selma)

King-270-Arrested-February-1-1965-WMThis February 1st, 1965 edition of the El Paso Herald-Post leads with the bold (all-caps) headline “DR. KING, 270 MARCHERS ARRESTED.” The sub-headline states “Negro Leader Later Freed; Re-Arrested.” This newspaper tells the story of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s arrest and re-arrest in Selma, Alabama after leading a large protest march for the right to vote…. Continue reading “1965 Dr. King and 270 Marchers Arrested (Selma)”

1958 J.H. JACKSON (anti-civil rights) National Baptist Convention PIN

JH Jackson1The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s was highly controversial in many black churches, where the minister preached spiritual salvation rather than political activism. The National Baptist Convention became deeply split; J.H. Jackson, President of the National Baptist Convention, had supported the Montgomery bus boycott of 1956, but by 1960 he told his denomination they should not become involved in civil rights activism.  Jackson’s vocal stance for “civil rights through law and order” went in direct opposition to the methods of civil disobedience advocated by King. As pastor of Olivet Church on the south side of Chicago, seven years after King’s death, Jackson would have the congregation spend upward of $50,000 to seal up the stone doors facing South Parkway and carve out another entrance around the corner,  just so the church address never would be listed on the street to be renamed Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive, after Jackson’s nemesis. Continue reading “1958 J.H. JACKSON (anti-civil rights) National Baptist Convention PIN”


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This 1956 pamphlet titled “Interposition, the Barrier Against Tyranny” is a speech of Representative John Bell Williams (D-Miss.) in the United States House of Representatives on January 25, 1956.  Interposition refers to the right of the states to protect their interests from federal violation deemed by those states to be dangerous or unconstitutional. Citizens’ Councils (which were considered a more civilized version of the Ku Klux Klan) famously defended segregation (and before that slavery) by teaching “Interposition and Nullification”.

This brochure was printed by the Association of Citizens’ Councils of Mississippi in Greenwood, Mississippi.

1964 GERALD L.K. SMITH RALLY FLYER (anti-semitic and racist)

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This 1964 “National Rally” flyer advertises Gerald L.K. Smith speaking at the Large Embassy Auditorium at 9th and Grand in Los Angeles, California on April 30th, 1964.  On the flyer it states that he will discuss “The significance of Governor Wallace of Alabama, who is rapidly becoming a white man’s champion.  Will the Negro become America’s ‘sacred cow’? Will the Jewish politicians and their ilk be able to combine minorities for political victory in such a way as to enslave and abuse the great white Christian majority of America?

1950’s ANTI-NAACP BROCHURE (warns of “negroid nation” and “mulattoism”)

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This 1950’s anti-NAACP brochure contains four pages of fear-mongering designed to discredit the NAACP by associating the civil rights organization with communism.  It refers to “…its devious way to bring America down to stark mulattoism.  A negroid-nation is the aim of both–which is but another way of saying Negro-Supremacy.”

Continue reading “1950’s ANTI-NAACP BROCHURE (warns of “negroid nation” and “mulattoism”)”

Signed Letter From Mary Peabody After Famed St. Augustine Arrest

Besides Albany, GA, St. Augustine, FL is probably the greatest unsung civil rights battlefield. Conspicuous among the civil rights legends from this amazing chapter of history, is 72-year-old Mary Peabody (“Grandmother Peabody”) who flew from Boston to St. Augustine in the last week of March of 1964 to participate in sit-ins which were famously volatile and often violent. As the mother of Massachusett’s Governor (Endicott Peabody), Mary Peabody’s unusual participation was a turning point that generated publicity and put an international spotlight on demonstrations in St. Augustine. Martin Luther King, Jr., sent a public telegram to then-Governor of Massachusetts stating, “I have been so deeply inspired by your mother’s creative witness in Florida.”

Continue reading “Signed Letter From Mary Peabody After Famed St. Augustine Arrest”

Heart of Atlanta (Whites Only) Motel Key, Postcards, and Letterhead

The Heart of Atlanta motel, located at 255 Courtland Street NE, was owned by Atlanta attorney Moreton Rolleston Jr.  Rolleston, a committed segregationist, refused to rent rooms at his hotel to black customers. Two hours after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into law, Rolleston filed a lawsuit for $11 million saying the law was unconstitutional. His lawsuit went all the way to the Supreme Court which would rule against Rolleston and provide a landmark ruling preventing discrimination in public accommodation.This collection consists of the key to Room #124, an oversized postcard, a regular sized postcard, and rare unused letterhead. 

Continue reading “Heart of Atlanta (Whites Only) Motel Key, Postcards, and Letterhead”


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This “Cotton Fluff” (by Olive Smith) sheet music from 1936 shows a racist depiction (face is almost a complete silhouette and exaggerated black lips) of a black child holding multiple cotton bolls.  Clayton F. Summy Co.


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This is the February 3rd, 1821 edition of the Boston Recorder which quotes a new law that “prohibits schools being kept for teaching colored people, under the penalty of three dollars for every offence (sic), if free, or 20 lashes on the bare back…


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1954 “Black Monday” brochure is the printed version of a speech by Judge Tom P. Brady (of the Fourteenth Circuit Court District Brookhaven, Miss) denouncing the 1954 Landmark Brown vs. Board of Education desegregation decision.  This brochure was published by the Mississippi Citizens’ Council.  Note the quote, “We do know the negro has, in certain instances, elliptical blood cells, which cause disease.  We do know that his skull is one-eighth inch thicker…”


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Two Fayette County, Alabama Democratic ballots from 1941 and 1956.  Note the logo of the chicken and the “WHITE SUPREMACY….FOR THE RIGHT” banner used by the Democratic Party at the time. The official overtly racist logo of the Alabama Democratic Party was adopted in 1904 and not replaced until 1966.

The 1956 ballot shows the notorious Eugene Bull Connor as candidate for “Delegate to National Democratic Convention”. Bull Connor famously used firehoses and police dogs on men, women, and children protesters during the famed Birmingham demonstrations of 1963.

Continue reading “1941 & 1956 “WHITE SUPREMACY” DEMOCRATIC BALLOTS (with BULL CONNOR as candidate)”

Key from Riverdale Motor Inn (where King wrote 2nd book )

According to an FBI log of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s August 1963 meetings with publisher Al Duckett (as told by Taylor Branch in Parting the Waters), Dr. King “managed to escape almost every day to the nearby Riverdale Motor Inn, where Clarence Jones had ensconced a writer named Al Duckett to help with crash production of the Birmingham book (Why We Can’t Wait).”

Matchbook Cover of Hotel Where Martin Luther King Was Beaten by Racist

The January 18, 1965 edition of the New York Times states “The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was punched and kicked by a white man today while he was registering as the first Negro guest of a hotel built more than a century ago by slave labor.” The hotel the article is referring to was the Hotel Albert in Selma, Alabama. James George Robinson, a white states righter, attacked King for trying to register at the hotel, a formerly whites only business in Selma, Alabama. He punched King several times, and before black onlookers intervened, kicked him in the groin. King refused to press charges stating that he had sympathy for Robinson.  Two months later, Robinson was arrested for beating a SNCC photographer. Continue reading “Matchbook Cover of Hotel Where Martin Luther King Was Beaten by Racist”

1939 White Witness Defends Black Defendant “Regardless of…Race”

These are two signed letters from 1939 regarding a court case involving Oliver V. Hemphill. The first letter is sent to Mr. Clarence M. Head* (who, from the letter is apparently white) from Dennis V. Allen, President of the San Diego Race Relations Society. In the letter, Allen thanks Head for being a character witness for the accused. According to the letter, Hemphill is “charged with an unseemly crime of which grave doubts exist as to his guilt.” Allen describes Hemphill as “a member of the colored race,” and says “I therefore, wish to express to you my very deep appreciation for your bold stand for what you consider Justice, regardless of ones race.”

Continue reading “1939 White Witness Defends Black Defendant “Regardless of…Race””

Freedom Rider Conrad Lynn Collection

Conrad Lynn participated in the first Freedom Ride, and was the first to be arrested among the group. Later, Lynn became involved in the highly publicized North Carolina “Kissing Case”, involving a pair of African-American boys, 7 and 9 years old, who were jailed, prosecuted and convicted of rape, and sentenced to reform school until age 21 after they playfully kissed (or were kissed by) a white girl their age as part of a game. Lynn later represented the Harlem Six. This collection includes Conrad Lynn’s funeral program, a framed print (with his face among other historic figures), his “American’s for Change” card, his health insurance card, and a personal letter to him from a friend. Continue reading “Freedom Rider Conrad Lynn Collection”


An undeniable sign of the times, this 1970 board game “Blacks & Whites” says (on the bottom cover) “Experience the ghetto.  Live on welfare.  Try to buy in a white suburb.  Your challenge: To keep the land-hungry majority type from winning the game cheaply and quickly.”  It also says “…if Black players turn the tide against white advantages–a kind of irrepressible excitement takes over the board.”

Continue reading “1970 “BLACKS & WHITES” BOARD GAME”

“9 Negroes Enter Ark. School” (Little Rock 9)

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This is the September 25, 1957 edition of The Evening Sun newspaper from Baltimore, MD. The headline reads “9 NEGROES ENTER ARK. SCHOOL, MAN BAYONETED IN BRIEF CLASH.”

The Little Rock Nine were a group of African American students enrolled in previously all-white Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas. They then attended after the intervention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Continue reading ““9 Negroes Enter Ark. School” (Little Rock 9)”



COMPLETE newspaper, the Dallas Morning News dated Sept 5, 1957.  Front page headline and famous photo of Elizabeth Eckford and Hazel Bryan Massery.  One of the most infamous photos of the Civil Rights Movement, it came to symbolize the vehement (and sometimes violent) rejection of  integrated schooling by whites.  Eckford was one of the “Little Rock Nine” who integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas after the President sent the 101st Airborne to escort the nine African American children into the school (after the Governor of Arkansas called out the Arkansas National Guard to prevent their entry).  Click here to see autograph of Hazel Bryan Massery. Newspaper was Continue reading ““LITTLE ROCK NINE” INFAMOUS FRONT PAGE: ELIZABETH ECKFORD & HAZEL BRYAN MASSERY”


These two signs advertised “Oneil Resturant” [sic] in Selma, Alabama in the 1990’s.  Oneil Hoggle was one of 4 segregationists shamefully acquitted by an all-white jury of killing Civil Rights supporter Reverend James Reeb.  Oneal Hoggle later opened a used car dealership (still open) and the restaurant; I believe the restaurant no longer exists.  These signs are made of thick, dark green plastic.



This is a large realty investment document dated for April 1928, for the purchase of a house in Bannock County, Pocatello, Idaho.  The document shows age discoloration and has been folded in quarters, still in nice shape.  There is a notation at the bottom of the document that the buyer of the property agrees to never sell the lot or assign the contract to a Negro, Chinaman, or Japanese.  There appear to be 5 signatures, including the Notary Public and the Ex-Officio Recorder.



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This segregationist leaflet was distributed by “The Defenders” of Richmond, Virginia.  It depicts U.S. soldiers “forcing” integration on school children.  Approximately 4″x4″ on light card stock.  Based on the date of Sep 26, 1957, this leaflet is assuredly based on President Eisenhower ordering the 101st Airborne to excort the “Little Rock Nine” to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas (an all-white school) after Governor Faubus order the National Guard to keep the black children out of the school.  The leaflet credits the “Union Leader” newspaper of Manchester, NH as the  original source for the cartoon.

1977 “RAY CAUGHT” (again)

raycaught1This is the June 13, 1977 edition of the Daily News.

James Earl Ray (March 10, 1928 – April 23, 1998) was an American fugitive and felon convicted of assassinating Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee. On June 8, 1968, two months after King’s death, Ray was arrested at London Heathrow Airport attempting to leave the United Kingdom for Brussels on a false Canadian passport. At the airport, officials noticed that Ray carried another passport under a second name. The UK quickly extradited Ray to Tennessee, where he was charged with King’s murder. He confessed to the crime on March 10, 1969, his 41st birthday, and after pleading guilty he was sentenced to 99 years in prison. On June 10, 1977, Ray and six other convicts escaped from Brushy Mountain State Penitentiary in Petros, Tennessee. They were recaptured on June 13. A year was added to Ray’s previous sentence, increasing it to 100 years.

Continue reading “1977 “RAY CAUGHT” (again)”

6 Railroad Passes for “Colored Laborer/Brakeman”

DSC08634This is a set of 6 railroad passes–5 for “John Williams and wife” (it says he was a “colored brakeman” for the Missouri Pacific) and 1 railroad pass for Isaac M. Feygans (it says “colored laborer”). The word “colored” is next to the names. They are dated 1919, 1923, 1926 (2), 1928, and 1930.  5 passes are for the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company and 1 is for the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad Company Line.  Notice on the front of the Feygans pass it does not permit blacks to ride on trains 1 and 2 (white only service) or visit the lounge car on trains 11 and 12 (whites only service) or use ANY sleeping car accomodations (similar racial restrictions on all of the passes).  5 passes (for the Williams family) are encased in a glass frame; it would be easy to open this frame and remove them if necessary.  The 6th pass is separate and not framed.

DSC00640 Continue reading “6 Railroad Passes for “Colored Laborer/Brakeman””


DSC00635Alabama Sheriff Jim Clark at MicrophoneThis hard-to-find segregationist pin was worn by Southern Whites to protest an end to segregation (“Never Integrate”).  In the 1960’s, violent and racist Sheriff Jim Clark (of Selma, Alabama) was always seen wearing his gun, billy club (to electrically shock nonviolent demonstrators), and this pin. Note the manufacturer name, symbol, and unusual stamp (on the inside) of pin.  Continue reading ““NEVER” SEGREGATIONIST PIN”



The heading of this postcard states “Martin Luther King at Communist Training school.” ON BACK: “Lower left, arms folded, is Abner W. Berry of the Central Communist Party.  To King’s right, Aubrey Williams, pres. of the communist front SCEF, and Myles Horton, dir. Highlander Folk School for communist training at Monteagle, Tenn.  Picture taken by secret counteragent during Red Workshop in race agitation.



DSC06681 DSC06684Another disgusting example of an alligator eating, or trying to eat, black children (see other similar items in the collection).  The tale of the alligator is a letter opener; by pulling the head of the African-American child out of the alligator’s mouth, a pencil is revealed.  The tail advertises the “Los Angeles Alligator Farm”.  So much for the South having a monopoly on racism. Continue reading “ALLIGATOR EATING BLACK BOY (PENCIL AND LETTER OPENER)”


DSC06425Made in Germany in the first quarter of the 20th century, it contains a black mask.  Instructions on the cover are in German, French, and English.  The English directions are as follows: “The Nigger Cap.  New.  Great surprise.  Wonderful effect.  It is possible to become a Nigger in half a minute, and then quickly a white man again.  The Nigger cap, which is made of light black tricot, is simply drawn over the head, the end pushed under the collar and the Nigger is ready.  If in company, one should bend down under the table a moment and draw the cap on, or one goes out of the room and comes back a Nigger, to the great astonishment of everyone present.  Great joke.  Patented.  Enormous success.”  Cap is in the package, unused.

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1963 “MOBS…DEFY DOGS, FIRE HOSES” (Birmingham, AL)

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Anyone who knows elementary Civil Rights history knows about the police dogs and fire hoses that were used against demonstrators in Birmingham, Alabama.  This May 5, 1963 edition of The Montgomery Advertiser shows the fascinatingly DIFFERENT perspective of the mainstream media in Alabama with documenting the event; the demonstrators are depicted as a “mob” and a “taunting crowd” who “challenged police officials to use the water hoses and leashed dogs.” Note Rev. James Bevel (they misspelled his name) in front page photo Continue reading “1963 “MOBS…DEFY DOGS, FIRE HOSES” (Birmingham, AL)”


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This program was handed-out at the silver anniversary Oklahoma Conference of Branches, NAACP on November 17 and 18th 1955.  The legendary T.M.R. Howard and Thurgood Marshall were the featured speakers.  The theme was “INTEGRATION”.

Howard moved into the national limelight as never before after the murder of Emmett Till in August 1955 and the trial of his killers, J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant in September. He delivered “[o]ne of the earliest and loudest denunciations of Till’s murder,” saying that if “the slaughtering of Negroes is allowed to continue, Mississippi will have a civil war. Negroes are only going to take so much.” He was also heavily involved in the search for evidence and gave over his home to be a “black command center” for witnesses Continue reading “1955 TMR HOWARD SPEAKER AT NAACP CONFERENCE RE INTEGRATION (also speaking: Thurgood Marshall)”


DSC08951 DSC08955This 1907 book The Negro, A Menace to American Civilization, was written by Robert Wilson Shufeldt who was a Major in the Medical Department of the U.S. Army. From the book:It takes a negro to assault a pretty and winsome little girl less than four years of age….It is scarcely necessary for me to say, that I am morally opposed to all forms of lynch law, but the negro is with us ; savagery and barbarous acts beget savagery and barbarous acts….Lynchings, in spite of everything, will continue to occur in the United States of America just so long as there is a negro left here alive, and there is a white woman living for him to assault. He can no more help his instincts than he is responsible for the color of his skin.”  Note the lynching photos.   Continue reading “1907 THE NEGRO, A MENACE TO AMERICAN CIVILIZATION”


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I have never seen another Hazel Bryan Massery autograph.  Massery was the infamous white teenager captured on the front page of newspapers around the world (click here to see original front page newspaper offered in this collection) on September 04, 1957 when she verbally assaulted Elizabeth Eckford, an African-American, who was trying to enter Central High School (an all-white school) in Little Rock, Arkansas. Continue reading “RARE HAZEL BRYAN MASSERY AUTOGRAPH”


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The Church and the Negro, A Discussion of Mormons, Negroes and the Priesthood by John Lewis Lund, copyright 1967, third printing 1968.  From the dust jacket it says the book “openly and frankly discusses and documents the Mormon position concerning the Negro.  “In regard to inter-marriage with the Negro…God does not approve!” Continue reading “1968 MORMON BOOK PROHIBITS BLACK PRIESTS & “LOSE…BLESSINGS BY MARRYING A NEGRO””

SIEGE OF 1ST BAPTIST CHURCH (3000 whites try to burn MLK in church)


This is the May 22, 1961 edition of The Mexia (Texas) Daily News with the headline “700 U.S. MARSHALS SENT TO ALABAMA.”  On May 21, 1961, First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama was a refuge for the passengers on the Freedom ride which met with violence at the Greyhound Bus Station in downtown Montgomery. The church was filled with some 1500 worshipers and activists, including Martin Luther King, Jr., Fred Shuttlesworth, Diane Nash, and James Farmer. The building was besieged by 3000 whites who threatened to burn it Continue reading “SIEGE OF 1ST BAPTIST CHURCH (3000 whites try to burn MLK in church)”


DSC00700This alarmist book by Kenneth Goth concludes that “…the colored races of the whole world are being united under the banner of atheistic hell-inspired Communism“.  It also notes that “In schools our young white girls are being forced to dance with Negro boys.”  Note the photo of “wild jungle sex orgies that go on each night…between Negroes and Whites”.

Book is published by Soldiers of the Cross and is 76 pages. Continue reading “1958 REDS PROMOTE RACIAL WAR”



This is a fascinating book written by Wynetta Willis Martin about her experiences as the first African-American in the famous Mormon Tabernacle Choir.  She staunchly supports the LDS church even though, at the time of her autobiographical account, the Mormon Church would not allow African-Americans to become priests.  The latter part of the book includes the chapter “Why Can’t the Negro Hold the Priesthood” by John D. Hawkes.  The “Forward” (see photo) is written by Odgen Mayor Bart Wolthuis. Five newspaper articles written about Ms. Martin are included in the book (see photos). Continue reading “1972 “BLACK MORMON TELLS HER STORY””


DSC00679This advertisement is not dated, but it is VERY old.  It shows racist caricatures of African-Americans stealing and shooting each other.  Text at the bottom describes the scene and in one portion says “…(he) was drowned in tears at the thought of not being able to shoot two darkey thieves.  But as the well filled with tears he came to the top and discovered one dead nigger…”  The ad suggests Barker’s Liniment for the aches and pains of the farmer after the incident.  Browned, a few small tears and chips to the edges, printing on rear, fragile.  Overall size is approximately 9″ x 6″.

DSC00685   DSC00682 Continue reading ““ONE DEAD NIGGER” RACIST AD”


DSC00647This 1966 brochure from the Louisiana Citizens’ Council is titled “Why We Are Expanding” and says “Questions and answers for the white people of South Louisiana who sincerely believe that States’ Rights and racial segregation must be preserved for the peace and good order of our county and for our children’s futures!”  Also says “The Citizens’ Council movement is the only nationwide organization dedicated to preserving the integrity of the white race!”  The brochure states (inside) that its aim is to “reverse the “Black Monday” decision of 1954 and repeal the mis-named “Civil Rights” Act of 1964.”  It also invites the reader to attend a meeting on October 18, 1966 in New Orleans.

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1956 Political Ads to “…keep Negro students…out of our white colleges” and “White Supremacy for the Right.”

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This complete April 30, 1956 edition of the Mobile Register has two BOLD examples of political segregation ads. The first ad, for Judge Roy Mayhall running for the Alabama Supreme Court, shows a rooster with the slogan “WHITE SUPREMACY FOR THE RIGHT“. The second ad, for C.W. (Charlie) McKay, Jr. running for Democratic National Committeeman, says “Alabama’s Fighting Champion for Segregation” and “Show Big Jim Folsom, the “Darling of the NAACP,” how you feel about Segregation and mongrelization.” Also, it says “McKay has sponsored Bills to keep Negro students, like Autherine Lucy, out of our white colleges.“… Continue reading “1956 Political Ads to “…keep Negro students…out of our white colleges” and “White Supremacy for the Right.””

3 Poll Tax Receipts 1923, 1928, and 1958

Poll-Tax-Receipts-1-WMIn U.S. practice, a poll tax was used as a de facto or implicit pre-condition of the exercise of the ability to vote. This tax emerged in some states of the United States in the late 19th century as part of the Jim Crow laws. After the ability to vote was extended to all races by the enactment of the Fifteenth Amendment, many Southern states enacted poll tax laws as a means of restricting black voters; such laws often included a grandfather clause, which allowed any adult male whose father or grandfather had voted in a specific year prior to the abolition of slavery to vote without paying the tax. These laws, along with unfairly implemented literacy tests and extra-legal intimidation, achieved the desired effect of disfranchising African-American and Native American voters, as well as poor whites.

Continue reading “3 Poll Tax Receipts 1923, 1928, and 1958”


DSC08675This is a tangible part of what so many fought, bled, and died for…to change THESE humiliating ordinances. This is an original HEAVY hardcover book “THE CODE OF THE CITY OF BIRMINGHAM”.  Includes ordinances such as “Negroes Not To Game With Whites,” “Negroes Separated From Whites In Restaurants,” “Negroes Separated From Whites on Street Cars,” and “White Children Not To Be Carried To Negro Homes.”  Code shows monetary penalties, imprisonment, and hard labor for violating these ordinances.

DSC08680  DSC08684  DSC08682  DSC08683 Continue reading “1917 SEGREGATION LAWS: BIRMINGHAM, AL CITY CODE BOOK”


DSC00692This article from the November 1907 issue of “The Metropolitan Magazine” is written by a Senator from Mississippi, John Sharp Williams.  The article is 15 pages (about 8″ x 10″ in size) and has several full page photos.  In the article titled “The Negro and the South” Williams writes “The darky complains a good deal…They are here, and they are going to remain here so long as there is  a cotton-field in sight…Some people talk as if the repeal of the fifteenth amendment would get rid of darkiesNegro women are poor mothers–careless and unintelligent.”

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DSC08994This May 2nd, 2001 mint condition copy of The Birmingham News has the cover story “BLANTON GUILTY” which details the conviction of Ku Klux Klansman Thomas E. Blanton who bombed the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, killing 4 little girls, on September of 1963.  Subtitle says, “Prosecutor: ‘Justice Delayed Is Still Justice'”.

I obtained this newspaper after flying to Birmingham, Alabama to witness this historic trial.  While only there a few days, I was blessed to be there for the rendering of the verdict of “Guilty”; an unforgettable moment. Continue reading “MURDERER OF 4 BIRMINGHAM GIRLS FOUND GUILTY (38 yrs later)”



“Darkie Toothpaste” shows one of the more obvious caricatures of the grinning, wide-eyed African-American.  Toothpaste bottle and box are from Japan.

Darkie is a toothpaste brand of Hawley & Hazel Chemical Company. Established in Shanghai in 1933 and later based in Hong Kong and Taiwan, Hawley & Hazel was acquired in 1985 by the US corporation Colgate-Palmolive, although the product is not marketed by Colgate-Palmolive Continue reading “DARKIE TOOTHPASTE (JAPAN)”

Poll Tax Pin

In U.S. practice, a poll tax was used as a de facto pre-condition of the exercise of the ability to vote. This tax emerged in some states of the United States in the late 19th century as part of the Jim Crow laws. After the ability to vote was extended to all races by the enactment of the Fifteenth Amendment, many Southern states enacted poll tax laws as a means of restricting black voters; such laws often included a grandfather clause, which allowed any adult male whose father or grandfather had voted in a specific year prior to the abolition of slavery to vote without paying the tax. These laws, along with unfairly implemented literacy tests and extra-legal intimidation, achieved the desired effect of disfranchising African-American and Native American voters, as well as poor whites. Continue reading “Poll Tax Pin”


faubus-Letter-WMGovernor Orval E. Faubus was the Governor who called out the National Guard to block nine African-American children from entering Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.  Typed Letter Signed as Governor, on colored State of Arkansas Letterhead, January 10, 1958.  Faubus makes reference to the challenge of integration in the letter by stating (after referencing “Pledge to the South”) “I am most grateful for your thoughtfulness and understanding of our situation.”  Boldly signed in black ink.



DSC06432This metal token from the 1940’s says “Finder will receive deed to one seashore building lot high and dry title guaranteed $37.50.  No other expense.  Finder, return this coin within 96 hours to Cedar Lakes Inc. 729 7th Ave at 49th Street NYC. WHITE RACE ONLY“.  This was issued in the 1940’s as land promotion.



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This May 28, 1961 headline from The Mexia (Texas) Daily News says “RIDERS REMAIN IN JAIL RATHER THAN PAY FINES.”  Right under the headline is an article with the title “Kennedy says Negro Could Be President Within 30-40 Years.”  The Freedom Riders challenged the status quo by riding interstate buses in the South in mixed racial groups to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation in seating. The Freedom Rides, and the violent reactions they provoked, bolstered Continue reading “1961 FREEDOM RIDERS HEADLINE”

“White Mother Slain” Viola Liuzzo 1965

Liuzzo-Alabamas-Shame-March-26-1965-WMViola Liuzzo is the only white female martyr of the American Civil Rights Movement. In March of 1965, Liuzzo heeded the call of Martin Luther King Jr. and traveled from Detroit, Michigan, to Selma, Alabama, in the wake of the Bloody Sunday attempt at marching across the Edmund Pettus Bridge. Liuzzo participated in the successful Selma to Montgomery marches and helped with coordination and logistics. At the age of 39, while driving back from a trip shuttling fellow activists to the Montgomery airport, she was fatally hit by shots fired from a pursuing car containing Ku Klux Klan (KKK) members Collie Wilkins, William Eaton, Eugene Thomas, and Gary Thomas Rowe, the latter of whom was actually an undercover informant working for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). In addition Continue reading ““White Mother Slain” Viola Liuzzo 1965″

Beaten Pastor Dies-James Reeb (Selma)


James Reeb was an American Unitarian Universalist minister, pastor, and activist during the Civil Rights Movement in Washington, D.C. and Boston, Massachusetts. While participating in the Selma to Montgomery marches actions in Selma, Alabama, in 1965, he was murdered by white segregationists, dying of head injuries in the hospital two days after being severely beaten. Three men were tried for Reeb’s murder but were acquitted by an all-white jury. His murder remains officially unsolved.

Frances Bowden is the proprietor of Selma Bail Bonds, which was located adjacent to the crime scene. After the death of Namon (Duck) Hoggle, and learning that William Portwood had admitted to being involved, Bowden gave an account of what she saw that night from the window of her business. In summary, she stated that Elmer Cook, William Stanley Hoggle, Duck Hoggle, and William Portwood assaulted Reverends Reeb, Olsen, and Miller. It was Elmer Cook who swung the club and struck Reverend Reeb


Million Man March Poster-WMThis is a collection of 12 items relating to the Million Man March on October 16, 1995.  This collection includes the following:DSC08934

–The original poster advertising the event
–An “I Was There” pennant
–2 pins from the event.
–3 “Final Call” newspapers advertising the MMM, 1 “Final Call” chronicling the event after it concluded, and 3 newspapers reporting the MMM the next day (New York Times, Rocky Mtn News, and USA Today).
–The official book that was released (see the table of contents which shows sections including “Spiritual and Historical Significance”, “Home Training Units”, and “interviews and Comments”).

Continue reading “1995 “MILLION MAN MARCH” COLLECTION”

Central High School (Little Rock 9) Segregation Cards

LR9-2In an attempt to create as much chaos as possible, segregationists disseminated these cards to students at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas during the 1957-1958 school year. The poem refers to Daisy Bates, who was a mentor, advisor, and escort for the nine African-American students integrating Central High School. The poem also refers to Lamb, Tucker, and Matson who were school board members at the time.

A former classmate of Ernest Green (one of the Little Rock 9) acquired this card from the Couch Estate in Little Rock, Arkansas. He confirms that these cards were handed out throughout the school year to keep tension high. Continue reading “Central High School (Little Rock 9) Segregation Cards”

KKK Magazine “Night Riders” about Viola Liuzzo murder

Possibly the most representative example of Klan propaganda, this may be the worst and most disgusting of the publications by the Klan/Citizens’ Councils.  Exploiting the murder of Viola Liuzzo, (a true hero of the Civil Rights Movement) by putting her body on the cover of their Klan “Night Riders” magazine as a trophy of their murderous efforts is about as low as it gets.

Continue reading “KKK Magazine “Night Riders” about Viola Liuzzo murder”

Dr. King Leads 30,000 to Alabama Capitol

King-30000-Alabama-Capitol-March-26-1965-WMThis is the March 26, 1965 edition of the Minneapolis Tribune with the bold headline “Dr. King Leads 30,000 to Alabama Capitol”. The subtitle says “HE VOWS MORE MARCHES AGAINST INJUSTICE

The front page also has a “Bulletin” about the murder of Viola Liuzzo (see below).

The Selma to Montgomery marches were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile (87 km) highway from Selma, Alabama, to the state capital of Montgomery. Continue reading “Dr. King Leads 30,000 to Alabama Capitol”

Pin from the Historic 1963 March On Washington

The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was held in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. The purpose of the march was to advocate for the civil and economic rights of African Americans. At the march, Martin Luther King Jr., standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial, delivered his historic “I Have a Dream” speech in which he called for an end to racism. Continue reading “Pin from the Historic 1963 March On Washington”



“A First Step Toward School Integration” is a pamphlet from the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE).  Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. states at the beginning of the Foreward, “Can the method of non-violence that erased the color line in Montgomery’s buses be applied effectively to schools?  This pamphlet seeks an answer to that question, so urgent in southern communities where the Supreme Court decision of 1954 is not yet accepted.

Continue reading “1958 RARE INTEGRATION PAMPHLET (CORE)”


Three separate newspapers covering the story of the Landmark 1954 Brown versus Board of Education Decision (click “view full size” after selecting photo) in the May 17, 1954 Atlanta Journal, the Chattanooga News-Free Press, and the May 18th, 1954 Chattanooga Daily Times.  Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The decision effectively overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court’s unanimous (9–0) decision stated that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.”




This original LIFE Magazine shows the cover story of the Central High Crisis with signatures from eight of the Little Rock Nine (Carlotta Ray Karlmark has moved to Sweden).

The Little Rock Nine were a group of African American students enrolled in previously all-white Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas. They then attended after the intervention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.



DSC08861 DSC08863 DSC08862This racist brochure from the 1960’s shows a Confederate flag on the cover and contains a list of 19 inflammatory race-based events that are intended as a “call to action” for the white man with an invitation May 1st to attend a meeting.  It mentions that “War has been declared upon an entire generation of little white children who are fighting for their lives, their right to decency, and their heritage of Christian civilization.  Little white girls are bearing the brunt of this savage assault.  Their existence or destruction depends upon the manhood of their race.  That is you.”  Continue reading “1960’s RACIST BROCHURE”


Violence and threats of violence against people of color threatened to keep them from voting.  This booklet was created in an effort to reduce fear and discouragement among African-Americans contemplating the vote. Notice that the booklet is edited by Jim Peck, the most famously brutalized Freedom Rider (one year prior to the publication of this booklet). 22 pages, The Right To Vote by James McCain, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 1962.  A phenomenal artifact demonstrating one of the strategies incorporated to persuade African-Americans to vote.

Continue reading “1962 CORE “THE RIGHT TO VOTE””


anti-MLK-newsletter-1-WMThis 1966 anti-Civil Rights newsletter is titled “RACIAL VIOLENCE AND HATRED” and is ironically from “Americans for Civil Harmony.”  In it, it attributes the fight for equality and civil rights to a communist plot.  It links Dr. King with illegal liquor sales and “promiscuous lewdness”; it identifies  several of his aides as “sex perverts” and “identified communists“.  It relies heavily on “perceptive critic”: J. Edgar Hoover.  This newsletter was part of the FBI propaganda campaign to discredit the Civil Rights Movement. 



DSC00712   Photo by Robert Jordan/Ole Miss Communications

This bumper sticker is protesting James Meredith’s enrollment at the University of Mississippi (Ole Miss).  The backing is still on the sticker.  It is in good condition.  In 1962, James Meredith was the first African-American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi, an event that was a flash point in the African-American civil rights movement. Continue reading “1962 ANTI-JAMES MEREDITH BUMPER STICKER”


DSC08803 DSC08804This October 21, 1962 edition of The Montgomery Advertiser has a headline of “Plea For State Militia By Wallace Expected” and includes the article “King Plans New Drive In Alabama“.  This article mentions the success of the Montgomery Bus Boycott and says that Martin Luther King “plans to recruit a nonviolent army to fight segregation in Alabama where his passive resistance move started 7 years ago“. The article titled “U of A Integration Aim Spurs Move, Sources Hint” says “Incoming Governor George C. Wallace is expected to take steps to create a state militia in the wake of an announced integration attempt at the University of Alabama.”


DSC08796 DSC08799This is the September 2, 1965 edition of the “Birmingham Independent”, a racist newsletter.  The cover story is about J. Edgar Hoover.  Articles include this astounding passage “Birmingham was a fine, cheerful city.  The Negroes were happy.  King and his cohorts moved in, and with some local agitators began stirring up bad feelings and convincing the Negroes that they were not happy at all….He actually preferred that (demands) were not met because this was a cheaper way to promote propaganda to feed his innocent victims on hatred.  What followed…were riots, racial disturbances, and the death of four Negro children” Continue reading “1965 RACIST BIRMINGHAM NEWSLETTER”


dsc08789This is a February 20, 1966 edition of “The Councilor“, an anti-integration newsletter published in Shreveport, Louisiana.  Articles include “‘Stab-Ins’ Planned As New Civil Rights Terror Campaign“, “Post Office Hiring Now Discriminates Against Whites”, and “Louisiana Race-Mixers Are Under Severe Fire From Aroused Public”.  Name of addressee and PO Box address is clearly printed on newsletter.



DSC08785DSC08786This “Special Wallace Tabloid” is published by the Montgomery Advertiser and Alabama Journal and is titled “THE DRAMATIC FIRST YEAR” celebrating segregationist Governor George Wallace’s first year as Governor of Alabama.  The tabloid is filled with history and numerous congratulations from businesses throughout Alabama (see photo).

2 NEW SOUTH Magazines, 1958 and 1963

DSC08553December 1958 and May 1963 issues of “New South Magazine”.  All articles are concerning segregation.  Each magazine is 16 pages.

The best and most valuable part is a chart showing a CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF SOUTHERN BOMBINGS from January 1, 1956 to June 1st 1963 (59 of them).  See the photo of the listing of bombings; amazing detail (many names of who was bombed or whether they were white integrationists, pastors, etc.).


Continue reading “2 NEW SOUTH Magazines, 1958 and 1963”


DSC08778 DSC08771This May 31, 1963 edition of The Montgomery Advertiser has a cover story that says “Leader Says Klan Won’t Attend Mix“.  This story quotes Imperial Wizard of the United Klans of America Robert M. Shelton, who says that the KKK will not attend the integration of the all-white University of Alabama by Vivian J. Malone (African-American) and states “The Klan Continue reading “1963 “QUIET INTEGRATION GAINS REPORTED ALL OVER SOUTH””

1966 “…thousands of Negroes will vote for the first time” (1st election post-1965 Voting Rights Act)

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This May 2, 1966 edition of The Birmingham News has cover story of U.S. Observers Sent to Black Belt with the larger title on the page reading “Alabama in Spotlight As Six States to Vote.” Other cover stories: “Millions will go to polls“, “Impact of ’65 Voting Rights Act to be felt“, “All in line can vote if identified”.  Click “Continue Reading” for full-page insert advertising Wallace for Governor. Continue reading “1966 “…thousands of Negroes will vote for the first time” (1st election post-1965 Voting Rights Act)”



One of the most interesting confidants in Martin Luther King’s inner circle was Bayard Rustin.  When J. Edgar Hoover began a smear campaign to discredit Rustin based on his homosexuality (and therefore attempt to discredit the Civil Rights Movement), Dr. King distanced himself from him. To avoid attacks based on his sexual orientation, Rustin served rarely as a public spokesperson; he usually acted as an influential adviser to civil-rights leaders.  Bayard Rustin was a leading activist of the early 1947–1955 Civil-Rights Movement. He organized the first of the Freedom Rides (1947) to challenge racial segregation on interstate busing Continue reading “BAYARD RUSTIN AUTOGRAPHED 8×10 PHOTO”


DSC08767 DSC08768Interestingly, this May 29, 1963 edition of The Birmingham Post-Herald erroneously shows a date of MAY 29, 1863 (100 YEARS EARLIER) and includes an article titled “Fort Sumter, 1963, Seems Near At Hand“.  It talks about Governor Faubus (Arkansas) yielding to the Federal Government over integration, Governor Ross (Mississippi) yielding, and wonders if Governor Wallace (Alabama) will stand his ground and not allow James Meredith (an African-American) to enter the all-white University of Alabama. It The newspaper also has an article titled “Harlem Negroes Impatient, Angry, Tired of Platitudes“,



This 4 page political booklet is titled “More Civil Rights Double-Talk and More Goose Eggs”.  It was distributed by the Republican Congressional Committee in 1952 on behalf of Senator H. Alexander Smith.  The 4 page booklet is white (though discolored by age) with red and black print.  It includes political cartoons and photos of Eisenhower, Nixon, and Smith.  The content of the booklet details Republican proposals for Civil Rights issues” and highlights the Democratic party’s push for “White Supremacy”.  The booklet is not torn and other than slightly aged, is in mint condition. Continue reading “1952 REPUBLICAN CIVIL RIGHTS BROCHURE”


gaston1    gaston2 

The A. G. Gaston Motel is a former motel located at 1510 5th Avenue North, now part of Birmingham’s “Civil Rights District”. It was constructed in 1954 by businessman A. G. Gaston to provide higher-class service to black visitors during the city’s decades of strictly-segregated business and recreation. It would become Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s headquarters for Birmingham’s “Project C” leading to the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Continue reading “A.G. GASTON MOTEL (2 MATCHBOOKS)”


DSC08763 DSC08764This May 28, 1963 edition of The Birmingham Post-Herald shows a cover story of “Wallace’s Complaint Rejected“.  Other stories include “Negro Maid Given Papers By Marshals“, “Schoolhouse Door Plan of Wallace Is Outlined” (this describes in detail how the Governor intends to defy the U.S. Marshals who will attempt to enroll the first African-American), “Desegregation Proposals Coming” which states “unless all signs fail, another filibuster by Conservative Southern Democrats is likely to greet any new civil rights measures in the Senate.”  Other articles include “RFK Urges Theater Men To End (Negro) Ban” and “Troop Action By President Ruled Valid“. Continue reading “1963 WALLACE “SCHOOLHOUSE DOOR PLAN” OUTLINED”